Manypeoplehavehelped make this book possible. I especially
want to thank George J. and KathleenWatersMatthews, whose
support for scholarship at Northeastern University has made
this book possible. I also want to thank my dean, Emily Spieler, for gener-
ous research support and a schedule conducive to writing. Many thanks
are also owed to my wonderful colleagues at Northeastern University
School of Law.
Forensic autopsy is an important task for proving crimes medically; unfortunately, every department of legal medicine of Japanese universities is suffering from insufficient staffs and budget. About 30 years ago, one of the authors started the analysis of drugs and poisons at the Department of Legal Medicine, Hiroshima University School of Medicine. At that time, the author did not have much knowledge about poison analysis; but it is a good memory that many good friends of toxicological societies gave the author many useful suggestions on analytical methods.
The plant Cannabis sativa L. has a long history for human being since about BC 2000 for its use as fiber material, food and folk medicine; cannabis (hemp, marijuana) means the whole plant itself and its dried products except for its stem and seeds. The word “hashish” is mainly used for the resin of the cannabis plant.
We propose a latent variable model to enhance historical analysis of large corpora. This work extends prior work in topic modelling by incorporating metadata, and the interactions between the components in metadata, in a general way. To test this, we collect a corpus of slavery-related United States property law judgements sampled from the years 1730 to 1866. We study the language use in these legal cases, with a special focus on shifts in opinions on controversial topics across different regions....
This paper presents the particular use of “Jibiki” (Papillon’s web server development platform) for the LexALP1 project. LexALP’s goal is to harmonise the terminology on spatial planning and sustainable development used within the Alpine Convention2 , so that the member states are able to cooperate and communicate efﬁciently in the four ofﬁcial languages (French, German, Italian and Slovene).
This paper describes the main features of our tool called “Legal Taxonomy Syllabus”. The system is an ontology based tool designed to annotate and recover multi-lingua legal information and build conceptual dictionaries on European Directives. Vogel, 2004) and ontologies engineering (Klein, 2001), are the following ones: 1) Terms and concepts must be distinguished; for this purpose, we use lightweight ontologies, i.e. simple taxonomic structures of primitive or composite terms together with associated deﬁnitions. ...
The empirical relationship between capital controls and the financial development of credit and equity markets is examined. We extend the literature on this subject along a number of dimensions.Specifically, we
(1) investigate a substantially broader set of proxy measures of financial development;
(2) create and utilize a new index based on the IMF measures of exchange restrictions that incorporates a measure of the intensity of capital controls; and (3) extend the previous literature by systematically examining the implications of institutional (legal) factors.
To an economist, a contract is an agreement under which two parties make reciprocal
commitments in terms of their behavior - a bilateral coordination arrangement. Of course,
this formulation touches on the legal concept of the contract (a meeting of minds creating
effects in law), but also transcends it.
Comparative constitutional law is a newly energized field in the early 21st century. Never
before has the field had such a broad range of interdisciplinary interest, with lawyers, political
scientists, sociologists and even economists making contributions to our collective understanding
of how constitutions are formed and how they operate. Never before has there been
such demand from courts, lawyers and constitution-makers in a wide range of countries for
comparative legal analysis.
We became acutely interested in the Harvard Research in Interna-
tional Law while we were researching all aspects of international law
for the second edition of the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Interna-
tional Law in the early 2000s. We wrote, in fact rewrote from the first
edition, an entry on the Harvard Research and that set us thinking
that, while we knew of ...
Charity Law & Social Policy explores contemporary law, policy and practice in a
range of modern common law nations. It does so from the perspective of how this
has evolved in the UK. As progenitor of a system bequeathed to its colonies and
after centuries of leadership in developing the core principles, policies and precedents,
the jurisdiction of England & Wales has been and remains central to charity
law as a common law phenomenon.
The Importance of Market Efficiency
Understanding the If and How the EMH Principal can Affect Shareholder Wealth
• Understanding how securities are valued is important because these valuation principles provide guidelines to managers how they should manage businesses on behalf of the shareholders. • It is the legal requirement and managerial responsibility for managers to act in the owners’ best interest.
Particularly for rented apartments, key control by apartment management is an
important issue. Large jury awards have been made to victims of crimes in
apartments because of negligent key control and use of a master key.
A resident gives up some rights when they move into a multi-residential property. In
most cases, the resident, per written agreement, cannot add or replace the lock on
their door unless management is given an extra key. By doing this, the management
assumes the responsibility of and legal liability for key control.
Under GHI, the U.S. is committed to supporting partner country government efforts to streamline reporting and
administrative requirements. We are supporting country-led data collection and analysis and harmonizing GHI report-
ing requirements with those of other donors and multilateral organizations.
Because larger ﬁrms are much more likely to be covered by collective bargaining
contracts and works councils, a closely related issue concerns the independent role
of ﬁrm size in providing wage insurance. As ﬁrm size is typically viewed as a good
proxy for capital market access (e.g., Gertler and Gilchrist 1994), insurance contracts
should be particularly apparent for individuals working at larger employers.
The Consumer Federation of America (CFA) and the National Credit Reporting
Association (NCRA) designed the details of this study with advice from legal counsel to
ensure the methodology would comply with the requirements of the Fair Credit Reporting
Act, Gramm Leach Bliley Act, and other consumer privacy laws. From the outset, each
organization was mindful of the ethical spirit and intent of these consumer protection and
Accounting standards around the world have evolved over centuries of business
and capital market development. In this process, accounting standards historically
were designed to meet the needs of each nation’s capital markets. Those stan-
dards that were found to work well in the legal, cultural, political and economic
context of each nation became the “generally accepted accounting principles,” or
GAAP, for that particular jurisdiction. Naturally, different norms in each nation led
to different GAAPs in each nation.
Auto thieves also take advantage of the differences in state vehicle branding laws
to “clone” vehicles. VIN cloning occurs when a VIN from a legally owned and
documented vehicle—often one sitting in a parking lot or dealership lot—is illegally
copied. The VIN then is used to make counterfeit tags. The perpetrator typically
steals a vehicle similar to the one from which the legitimate VIN was taken. The
stolen vehicle’s actual VIN tag then is replaced with the counterfeit tag. The vehicle
now is a “clone” of the legitimate vehicle parked in the lot.
International lawyers have often been interested in the link between their
discipline and the foundational issues of jurisprudential method, but little
that is systematic has been written on this subject. In this book, an attempt
is made to ﬁll this gap by focusing on issues of concept-formation in legal
science in general with a view to their application to the speciﬁc concerns
of international law.
In extreme cases of mental disability, substituted judgment may be appropriate when
a severe emotional disturbance or cognitive impairment compromises an individual’s
ability to give informed consent. Any restriction or denial of decision-making author-
ity to a disabled woman should be the consequence of an objective procedure, con-
taining proper legal safeguards against every form of abuse. This procedure must be
based on an evaluation of the capability of the mentally disabled person by qualified
experts, subject to periodic review and to appeal.