This book is concerned with the organisation, powers and accountability of
government in the British constitution. It has been written from a lawyer’s perspective,
modified by an awareness that the British constitution is far from
being exclusively the handiwork of lawyers. Judges and other practitioners of
the discipline of law have made a notable contribution to it, but so have political
philosophers, controversialists of many hues, party organisations, peers,
rebels in and out of Parliament and the legions of special interests.
Administrative legal systems are based on national constitutional legal traditions
and cultural values. English judges have for centuries applied the common law. In
Germany, judges have developed administrative legal principles for the protection
of the individual against state action. However, over the last few decades, administrative
legal systems have become less isolated.
Business and commercial enterprise takes place within a legal context and, in the final
analysis, is governed and regulated by law. One of the problems facing the person
studying business activity, and the one that is specifically addressed in this book, is
the fact that business enterprise takes place within a general and wide-ranging legal
environment, but the student is required to have more than a passing knowledge of
the legal rules and procedures which impact on business activity.
How prevalent are pay per click scams? In the U.S. alone, scammers hijack nearly 600
million clicks monthly with illicit ads. These hijacked clicks drive up advertising costs
for legitimate brands—and cost additional billions in lost revenues, reduced marketing
effectiveness and brand dilution. The scams also affect brand loyalty and consumer
trust as consumers, expecting to have an authentic brand experience, come across
illicit sites or inferior goods.
Marketers and eCommerce professionals, severely impacted by PPC scams, should
take the lead in fighting them.
Transport will play a critical role in delivering the CO2 emissions cuts needed to meet global political cli-
mate change targets. The world’s car fleet is expected to triple by 2050, with 80% of the growth in rapidly
developing economies. At the same time the car manufacturing industry is facing huge difficulties in the
economic recession. We have to find ways to reconcile legitimate aspirations for mobility, an ambitious
reduction in CO2 from cars worldwide, and global economic recovery.
I am about to say a few words upon the aims of this society: and I should be sorry either to exaggerate or to depreciate our legitimate pretensions. It would be altogether impossible to speak too strongly of the importance of the great questions in which our membership of the society shows us to be interested. It would, I fear, be easy enough to make an over-estimate of the part which we can expect to play in their solution. I hold indeed, or I should not be here, that we may be of some service at any rate to...