Xem 1-20 trên 36 kết quả Lending activities
  • Brewer, Minton, and Moser (2000), we evaluate an equation relating the determinants of C&I lending and the impact of derivatives on C&I lending activity. The major finding in this study is that the interest-rate derivatives allow commercial banks to lessen their systematic exposure to changes in interest rates, which enables banks to increase their lending activities without increasing the total risk level faced by the banks. This consequently increases the banks’ abilities to provide more intermediation services.

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  • One motivation that was lacking in the United States was the need to help finance the national government. 7 In fact, the absence of a sizable outstanding national debt posed a problem in designing a system that would not compete with commercial bank lending activities. Sensitivity was high, as well, to the possibility that a nationwide postal bank might drain funds from local to big-city financial markets.

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  • Second, the sample period in this study covers a full business cycle, thereby providing a better indication of the relative variability of lending activities experienced by commercial banks over this period. Brewer, Minton, and Moser (2000) document a universal downward trend of C&I lending over a sample period of 1985 to 1992, a period during which the economy experienced a significant cyclical downturn.

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  • For banks, on the other hand, taking on credit exposure is a defining element of their business, and risk management of lending activities is their major challenge. Banking risk management practices are currently undergoing a significant transformation, entailing a greater emphasis on the systematic assessment of the quality of all credits and the production of detailed quantitative estimates of credit risk. These quantitative measures are being used by banks to inform their internal estimates of the amount of provisions and capital necessary to support these risks.

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  • Diamond and Rajan (2009) argue that securitisation also plays an important role in the transmission of interest rate shocks to the housing market. Securitisation allows banks to share risks by moving them off their balance sheets. This leads to an increase in banks' risk appetite and strengthens the `risk-taking channel' described above. To the extent that banks become more lenient in their lending standards, the 'nancial accelerator' effect may be strengthened as well.

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  • Monitoring and regular review. Project manage- ment must keep track of how the project is progressing in terms of expenditure, resource use, implementation of activities, delivery of results and the management of risks. This is achieved through ‘monitoring’, which is the systematic and continu- ous collection, analysis and use of management information to support effective decision-making. Monitoring is an internal management responsibil- ity, although it may be complemented by ‘external’ monitoring inputs.

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  • At the same time, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that have a permanent consulta- tive forum with the World Bank (WB), the WB-NGO Committee, identified social funds as the most significant Bank-supported portfolio of programs that effectively include civil society or- ganizations in their design, management, and implementation. In the spring of 1996, the com- mittee requested the Bank’s management to organize an international learning event on social funds.

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  • Your money earns money. When your money goes to work, it may earn a steady paycheck. Someone pays you to use your money for a period of time. When you get your money back, you get it back plus “interest.” Or, if you buy stock in a compa- ny that pays “dividends” to shareholders, the company may pay you a portion of its earnings on a regular basis. Your money can make an “income,” just like you. You can make more money when you and your money work. You buy something with your money that could in- crease in value.

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  • There are two key ways banks fund their lending activity to SMEs; through deposit taking from their customers and, where the lending requirements exceed the value of the deposit base, through borrowings from wholesale money markets. When providing Loans or Overdrafts to SME’s, banks tend to quote an interest rate made up of a ‘cost of funds’ using a market reference rate, plus a margin. With regard to the ‘cost of funds’ it is clear from the explanation below these reference rates no longer reflect the true cost of funds to the banks.

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  • Even if a pragmatic approach continues to be taken on PRM-TSI compliance work, e.g. for a residual Pacer fleet, there could be a peak of activity in 2017-2019. The supply side of the industry will need to increase capacity to cope with this peak, and for supporting continued operation of existing vehicles. The option of seeking a change to the law to permit a longer timescale for these modifications, or to permit further review of PRM-TSI scope for vehicles with a short life expectancy and/or very low use, is one that may be worth pursuing. ...

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  • In accordance with the above acts, the stock exchange has enacted new bylaws regulating its activities, a new statute, rules of practice, stock exchange price list and rulebook on listings and quotations. The following can be the subject of public ten- der: shares, bonds, warrants for purchase of shares or bonds, deposit certificates and financial derivatives determined by the stock exchange decision and approved by the Securities’ Exchange Commission (e.g.

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  • Enzyme enhancement therapy is an emerging therapeutic approach that has the potential to treat many genetic diseases. Candidate diseases are those associated with a mutant protein that has difficulty folding and⁄or assembling into active oligomers in the endoplasmic reticulum.

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  • The definition of voltage as work per unit charge lends itself very conveniently to the introduction of power. Recall that power is defined as the work done per unit time. Thus, the power, P , either generated or dissipated by a circuit element can be represented by the following relationship: Power = Thus, Work Work Charge = = Voltage × Current Time Charge Time (2.9) The electrical power generated by an active element, or that dissipated or stored by a passive element, is equal to the product of the voltage across the element and the current flowing through ...

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  • Mutual funds charge two kinds of fees: expenses and loads. Expenses comprise the management fee (typically a fixed percentage of assets under management) and other recurring operating costs—such as custodian, administration, accounting, registration, and transfer agent fees. Rather than charging explicit fees for these expenses, funds deduct them on a daily basis from the fund's net assets. Expenses are expressed as a percentage of assets under management (the expense ratio). Loads are one-time fees used to compensate distributors.

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  • The European microfinance market is characterized by varying legal and regulatory frameworks, different economic realities, differing political philosophies towards socio-economic activity, and different financial sector structures (and history). 5 Banks are subject to comprehensive regulation, even though local differences exist given that EU directives may not have been fully transposed into national law. In some European countries, only regulated banks may engage in micro- lending. Non-banks are typically not subject to banking regulation.

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  • Rule 506 is a “safe harbor” for the private offering exemption of Section 4(2) of the Securities Act. 76 Pursuant to a specifi c Dodd-Frank mandate, the SEC has proposed a rule to disqualify issuers (which would include private funds) from using Rule 506 for any securities offerings involving “felons and other bad actors.

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  • The WSBI understands by microcredits small size uncollateralized or weakly collateralised loans pro- vided to vulnerable people for economic and social empowerment through income and employment generation8 . Historically, savings banks did not succeed to introduce microcredit as a business line because they were in most cases statutorily prevented from lending. And where they could lend, savings banks have traditionally developed retail banking activities for low wage earners. For this reason, savings banks are consistently invisible in microfinance publications.

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  • The relationship between household banking status and AFS use is complex. A non-trivial share of unbanked households (29.5 percent) do not use any of the AFS providers asked about in the survey, suggesting they rely primarily on cash. However, overall, unbanked households are more active AFS users than underbanked households. Unbanked households are more likely to use multiple products and to have used AFS, particularly transaction products, more recently and more frequently than under- banked households.

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  • Energy is a major cost driver when it comes to getting water to the tap and treating wastewater, but our current system does not adequately account for energy needs when planning water-system improvements. A federal lending authority, however, could allow for drinking and clean water infrastructure investments to be coordinated with the expansion of electrical capacity required to support them. Or it could arrange for channel deepening at ports to be planned alongside the bridge replacements required to ensure new and larger freight vessels can access harbors.

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  • We approximate credit risk developments at the bank level by considering non- performing loans of each institution and rating changes at the individual security level. Importantly, our database allows us to identify not only the rating of these securities at the time of origination but also their evolution over time. We also analyze to what extent housing prices, securitization activity and lending may have asymmetric effects across institutions and geographically (at the regional level) by identifying the role of each of these factors.

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