Lending operations

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  • Chapter 19 - Linear programming. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Describe the type of problem that would lend itself to solution using linear programming, formulate a linear programming model from a description of a problem, solve simple linear programming problems using the graphical method,...

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  • Mutual funds charge two kinds of fees: expenses and loads. Expenses comprise the management fee (typically a fixed percentage of assets under management) and other recurring operating costs—such as custodian, administration, accounting, registration, and transfer agent fees. Rather than charging explicit fees for these expenses, funds deduct them on a daily basis from the fund's net assets. Expenses are expressed as a percentage of assets under management (the expense ratio). Loads are one-time fees used to compensate distributors.

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  • African countries have a choice between establishing an agricultural sector founded on broad-based ownership of medium-size farms (much larger than those currently operated and expanding over time) or a dual structure where a few mega farms coexist with many small producers. Given the long-term impacts associated with such choices, clear elaboration of the issues in an informed public debate about the development paths open to a country is needed.

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  • The rules and regulations of the BSP that govern the credit card operations of the banks and subsidiary credit card companies are not enough to screen out delinquent borrowers. As a prudential measure to protect banks and subsidiary credit card companies, the BSP requires these institutions to set up an appropriate system for managing their risk exposures to credit card operations and to document these exposures in a complete and concise manner.

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  • One final word of caution. It is true that imperfect asset substitutability does give the government or the central bank an additional policy tool. But there is a qualification: Goodhart’s Law will eventually apply to debt operations. 14 The central bank may virtually fix the yield of its target bond. But if central bank action is known to have concentrated on a particular maturity, then its information content is compromised. Investors may judge that such paper is overpriced relative to paper of other maturities, and therefore avoid buying it.

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  • I came to view the process by which a central bank manages the interbank rate in a different light a few years ago in a paper on the zero bound on interest rate policy. 8 Obviously, at the zero bound it is no longer possible for a central bank to operate on the interest opportunity cost spread. The spread is zero. Nevertheless, a central bank still may be said to manage the interbank rate when it is zero. Thus, something other than open market operations and the interest opportunity cost spread must matter for the implementation of interest rate policy. Irving...

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  • But the majority of these companies also said they were still struggling with how to best use the different channels, gauge their effectiveness, and integrate social media into their strategies. Two-thirds of users have no formalized social media strategy in place. Sixty-one percent reported a significant learning curve before they can truly utilize social media. Many companies reported they are still searching to find the best way to demonstrate the impact of social media and the contribution to the bottom line.

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  • Stock-taking occurred in different forms: through the presentation of the World Bank’s and of the Inter-American Development Bank’s studies on social funds, as well as through many individual interventions by social funds’ managers during the plenary sessions and in working groups. Ten original papers were also presented by relevant practitioners on specific topics related to social funds’ design, management, and implementation. These papers provide an overview of current design and implementation challenges and concerns facing social funds.

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  • Paul H Brisk started his career in December 1969 in Leeds, as a junior clerk for the Halifax Building Society in the United Kingdom, this was the biggest Society in the world and remained so until it changed its mutual status to Halifax plc in 1997. In a career of 31 years he undertook various positions, securing his first step in management by 1976. Promotions at that time took him to a number of different locations throughout the country, where he held Managerial positions in the retail arm of the business, together with a period of time specialising in the area Lending Operations and...

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  • Gender analysis is improving the quality of the World Bank’s adjust- ment and programmatic lending operations in a number of areas essential to growth and poverty reduction, including protection for displaced workers, access to land, and discrimination in the rural labor market. For example: The Vietnam Poverty Reduction Support Credit has been particular- ly strong in analyzing the likely gender impacts of state-owned enter- prise reform, and integrating this analysis into the design of safety net provisions for displaced workers.

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  • Funding conditions at European banks improved following special policy measures introduced by central banks around the beginning of December. Before that time, many banks had been unable to raise unsecured funds in bond markets and the cost of short-term funding had risen to levels only previously exceeded during the 2008 banking crisis. Dollar funding had become especially expensive. The ECB then announced that it would lend euros to banks for three years against a wider set of collateral.

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  • There are two key ways banks fund their lending activity to SMEs; through deposit taking from their customers and, where the lending requirements exceed the value of the deposit base, through borrowings from wholesale money markets. When providing Loans or Overdrafts to SME’s, banks tend to quote an interest rate made up of a ‘cost of funds’ using a market reference rate, plus a margin. With regard to the ‘cost of funds’ it is clear from the explanation below these reference rates no longer reflect the true cost of funds to the banks.

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  • Even if a pragmatic approach continues to be taken on PRM-TSI compliance work, e.g. for a residual Pacer fleet, there could be a peak of activity in 2017-2019. The supply side of the industry will need to increase capacity to cope with this peak, and for supporting continued operation of existing vehicles. The option of seeking a change to the law to permit a longer timescale for these modifications, or to permit further review of PRM-TSI scope for vehicles with a short life expectancy and/or very low use, is one that may be worth pursuing. ...

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  • For more than two decades, Bank of America has aspired to environmental leadership in the financial services sector. In 2007, we announced a 10-year, $20 billion business initiative to address climate change through our lending, investing, products and services, and our own operations. This initiative is far more than doing good for its own sake — it has proven to be a long-term, compelling business opportunity for our clients, our company and our shareholders.

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  • A Fund may engage in securities lending pursuant to the terms of an agreement which includes restrictions as set out in Canadian securities legislation. Collateral held is government Treasury Bills and qualified Notes. Income from securities lending is included in the Statement of Operations and is recognized when earned. The securities on loan continue to be displayed in the Statement of Investment Portfolio. The market value of the securities loaned and collateral held is determined daily.

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  • Despite their significant role in availing financial services to underprivileged groups and communities, the involvement of savings banks in the microfinance’s arena is often overlooked as many are still restricted from lending and offering microcredit schemes. However, these restrictions are progressively lifted, fully or partially, allowing a few to expand the scope of their operations.

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  • These relationships are shown in three figures. Figure 2 shows that it is operating costs, rather than capital costs or loan loss provisions, that that drive the differences in total costs between different kinds of microfinance institutions. Figure 3 shows that the institutions that make the smallest loans on average are also the institutions that face the highest costs per unit lent (a result that holds up in regressions after controlling for institutions’ age, inflation, country- level governance, GDP growth, region, and lending method).

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  • In addition, it could make the liquidity position of the ETF fragile, by challenging the ability of ETF providers to meet unexpected liquidity demands from investors, particularly if outflows from ETFs become significant under severe stress. A prevalence of securities lending could create a risk of a market squeeze in the underlying securities if ETF providers recalled on-loan securities on a large scale in order to meet redemptions.

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  • The very strong growth of collateralised structured operations in the context of synthetic ETFs and ETF-based securities lending suggests that there are significant benefits for authorities and ETF market participants alike in improving their understanding of the risks attached, and the ways in which they can be mitigated. The current protracted period of low interest rates provides incentives for re-leveraging in non-standard market segments, which may lead to a build up of financial vulnerabilities, especially as the process of financial repair is not complete.

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