The complexes formed by partially folded human and bovine
a-lactalbumin with oleic acid (OA) have been reported to display selective
apoptotic activity against tumor cells. These complexes were named human
(HAMLET) or bovine (BAMLET) alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to
Hemolin, a plasma protein from lepidopteran insects, is
composed of four immunoglobulin domains. Its synthesis is
induced by microbial challenge. We investigated the
biological functions of hemolin inManduca sexta.It was
found to bind to the surface of bacteria and yeast, and
caused these micro-organisms to aggregate. Hemolin was
demonstrated to bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from
Gram-negativebacteriaand to lipoteichoic acid fromGram-positive bacteria.
Carboxypeptidases were purified fromguts of larvae of corn
earworm (Helicoverpa armigera), a lepidopteran crop pest,
by affinity chromatography on immobilized potato carb-oxypeptidase inhibitor, and characterized by N-terminal
sequencing. A larval gut cDNA library was screened using
probes based on these protein sequences. cDNA HaCA42
encoded a carboxypeptidase with sequence similarity to
enzymesofclan MC [Barrett,A.J.,Rawlings,N. D.&
Woessner, J. F. (1998)Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes.
Academic Press, London.], but with a novel predicted spe-cificity towards C-terminal acidic residues....
The digestive tract of lepidopteran insects is extremely alkaline. In the pres-ent work, molecular adaptation of amylolytic enzymes to this environment
was investigated in the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella, an important
stored-product pest. Three digestivea-amylases [Ephestia kuehniellaa-amy-lase isoenzymes 1–3 (EkAmy1–3)] with an alkaline pH optimum were puri-fied from larvae and biochemically characterized.
N-tert-Butyl-N,N¢-dibenzoylhydrazine and its analogs are
nonsteroidal ecdysone agonists that exhibit insect molting
hormonal and larvicidal activities. The interaction mode of
those ecdysone agonists with the heterodimer of the ecdy-sone receptor andultraspiracle has not been fully elucidated.
We expressed the ecdysone receptor B1 and the ultraspiracle
of the lepidopteran,Chilo suppressalis,using anin vitro
transcription/translation system and confirmed, using gel-shift assays, that the proteins functionas ecdysone receptors.
We also analyzed their ligand-binding affinity. ...