Materials are evolving today faster than at any time in history. Industrial nations
regard the development of new and improved materials as an “underpinning technology”
– one which can stimulate innovation in all branches of engineering, making
possible new designs for structures, appliances, engines, electrical and electronic devices,
processing and energy conservation equipment, and much more.
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) are playing a major role in information technology
(IT) by providing the promise of further expanding the use of digital displays
through making display fabrication technology lower in cost and higher in performance
to replace liquid crystal displays (LCD). Due to various attractive features such
as high contrast, high brightness, large color gamut and thin structure, various sized
OLED displays from small-sized mobile phone display to large-sized TV display have
already begun to be mass-produced....
Scientists and engineers for decades searched to utilize magnesium, known of its low density, for light-weighting in many industrial sectors. This book provides a broad review of recent global developments in theory and practice of modern magnesium alloys. It covers fundamental aspects of alloy strengthening, recrystallization, details of microstructure and a unique role of grain refinement.
Lithography, the fundamental fabrication process of semiconductor devices, is playing
a critical role in micro- and nano-fabrications and the revolution in high density integrated
circuits. Traditional optical lithography (photolithography) including contact and project
photolithography has contributed significantly to the semiconductor device advancements.
Photodiodes are the simplest but most versatile semiconductor optoelectronic devices.
They can be used for direct detection of light in the ultraviolet, visible and
infrared spectral regions, and of soft X rays and charged particles. When coupled
with scintillators or other converting materials, they are also suitable for the detection
of gamma rays and neutrons.
The studies of ultrashort laser pulse interactions with single atoms, molecules,
nanoparticles and condensed matter is a hot topic of modern physics, since the
obtained results stimulate the development of fundamental principles of light-matter
interaction and, at the same time, find the wide area of practical applications.
This volume contains the contributions devoted both to the discussion of general
principles and fundamental experiments, as well as the different practical applications.