Light propagation

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  • “Diffraction” of light can be understood as any deviation of light rays from their geometrical propagation line (that is straight in a homogeneuos material) An example (shown in the picture):The edge of shadow is never perfectly sharp. Some light appears in the geometrical shadow, and there are dark and light fringers in the area of illumination.

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  • In 2009 the world celebrated 50 years of lasers, bringing to the attention of the public how deeply lasers and laser related technologies have revolutionized both science and everyday life. Next year will be the fiftieth anniversary of the semiconductor laser. Used as a compact light source with high modulation rates, it transformed telecommunications in combination with glass fibers. Today laser diodes are omnipresent in data storage and communication. Still, most of these applications are based on infrared or red laser diodes.

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  • The book collects original and innovative research studies of the experienced and actively working scientists in the field of wave propagation which produced new methods in this area of research and obtained new and important results. Every chapter of this book is the result of the authors achieved in the particular field of research. The themes of the studies vary from investigation on modern applications such as metamaterials, photonic crystals and nanofocusing of light to the traditional engineering applications of electrodynamics such as antennas, waveguides and radar investigations....

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  • Change of public opinion about Mohammed Astonishing triumph of Mohammedanism Old religious systems of Arabia Polytheism succeeds the doctrines of the Magians The necessity of reform Early life of Mohammed Cadijeh Mohammed's meditations and dreams His belief in a personal God He preaches his new doctrines The opposition and ridicule of his countrymen The perseverance of Mohammed amid obstacles His flight to Medina The Koran and its doctrines Change in Mohammed's mode of propagating his doctrines Polygamy and a sensual paradise Warlike means to convert Arabia Mohammed accommodates his do...

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  • Brillouin scattering was discovered in 1922 by Louis Brillouin [1]. It is one of a number of characteristic scattering phenomena that occur when light interacts with solid, liquid or gaseous media and corresponds to the scattering of light from thermally-induced acoustical waves (propagating pressure/density waves) present in media at all temperatures. At normal light levels the amount of scattering is small. The characteristics of the scattering can offer interesting information about the properties of the medium (temperature, pressure) and form the basis for remote fibre sensor devices.

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  • There are strong interdependencies between banks and governments, through both balance sheet and contingent claim exposures. These interdependencies mutually reinforce the macroeconomic propagation of banking or sovereign market tensions. Second, given the fragmentation of some market segments and the setback to European banking sector integration, persistent cross-country heterogeneity needs to be considered. Third, a proper assessment of fi nancing conditions hinges on the distinction between demand and supply-side factors in credit intermediation.

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  • I first want to thank my collaborator, Collins Hemingway, for his help in synthesizing and developing the material in this book and for his overall management of this project. The tunnel propagation hypothesis, as part of the set of mechanisms operating during defibrillation, is expected to shed light on possible strategies for lowering DFT as well as for developing new defibrillation devices.

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  • BRIEF HISTORY OF RF AND MICROWAVE WIRELESS SYSTEMS The wireless era was started by two European scientists, James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. In 1864, Maxwell presented Maxwell's equations by unifying the works of Lorentz, Faraday, Ampere, and Gauss. He predicted the propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space at the speed of light. He postulated that light was an electromagnetic phenomenon of a particular wavelength and predicted that radiation would occur at other wavelengths as well.

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  • The wireless era was started by two European scientists, James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. In 1864, Maxwell presented Maxwell's equations by unifying the works of Lorentz, Faraday, Ampere, and Gauss. He predicted the propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space at the speed of light. He postulated that light was an electromagnetic phenomenon of a particular wavelength and predicted that radiation would occur at other wavelengths as well. His theory was not well accepted until 20 years later, after Hertz validated the electromagnetic wave (wireless) propagation.

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  • Before entering into the different techniques of optical metrology some basic terms and definitions have to be established. Optical metrology is about light and therefore we must develop a mathematical description of waves and wave propagation, introducing important terms like wavelength, phase, phase fronts, rays, etc. The treatment is kept as simple as possible, without going into complicated electromagnetic theory.

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  • Generally the term photonic crystal refers to two dimensional (2-D) and three dimensional (3-D) structures. Using 2-D and 3-D photonic crystals it is possible to control the propagation of light at arbitrary angles of incidence and not only the light normally incident as is the case for conventional optical films. Further, using photonic crystals, it is possible to achieve optical functionality not possible using conventional optical materials. This book provides a complete overview about photonic crystals including properties, applications, approaches and methods for the study....

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  • THE AMPLITUDE MODULATED RADIO RECEIVER The electromagnetic disturbance created by the transmitter is propagated by the transmitter antenna and travels at the speed of light as described in Chapter 2. It is evident that, if the electromagnetic wave encounters a conductor, a current will be induced in the conductor. How much current is induced will depend on the strength of the electromagnetic field, the size and shape of the conductor and its orientation to the direction of propagation of the wave....

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  • • Imagine an atom with excess energy. Without external action, the atom would, after a period of time, spontaneously emit light, whose properties (e.g. its direction) are random — only the energy is fixed. • This situation changes when the atom is shone with a light wave of the corresponding energy. There is then a higher probability that the atom will also simply copy the remaining properties of the incident wave: It then emits light that is in step with the original and propagates in the same direction....

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  • PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN FREE SPACE A. Correspondence Between the Spatial Harmonic and the Plane Wave B. Transfer Function of Free Space C. Impulse-Response Function of Free Space OPTICAL FOURIER TRANSFORM A. Fourier Transform in the Far Field B. Fourier Transform Using a Lens DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT A. Fraunhofer Diffraction *B. Fresnel Diffraction IMAGE FORMATION A. Ray-Optics Description of Image Formation B. Spatial Filtering C. Single-Lens Imaging System HOLOGRAPHY

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  • Diffraction When light passes an edge, it will deviate from rectilinear propagation. This phenomenon (which is a natural consequence of the wave nature of light) is known as diffraction and plays an important role in optics. The term diffraction has been conveniently defined by Sommerfeld as ‘any deviation from rectilinear paths which cannot be interpreted as reflection or refraction’. A rigorous theory of diffraction is quite complicated. Here we develop expressions for the diffracted field based on Huygens’ principle of secondary spherical wavelets.

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  • Photoelasticity and Polarized Light Up to now we have treated the light field as a scalar quantity. The electromagnetic field, however, is a vector quantity which is perpendicular to the direction of propagation and with a defined orientation in space. This property is known as the polarization of light. In our treatments of interferometry and holography it is silently understood that the interfering waves have the same polarization. In practice, however, this condition is fulfilled to a greater or lesser degree....

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  • Sounding, Sampling and Simulation In the earlier chapters we discussed the characteristics of mobile radio channels in some detail. It emerged that there are certain parameters which provide an adequate description of the channel and it remains now to describe measuring equipment (channel sounders) that can be used to obtain experimental data from which these parameters can be derived.

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  • The basic physics of sound propagation are simple, but the interaction of sound pressure waves with complex shapes and multi-layer constructions with openings, as you find in buildings, is more challenging. Controlling noise, both from the internal and external environment and from the internal mechanical and electrical services in buildings, is essential to create environments that promote aural communication and comfortable working conditions.

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  • Optical fibers, an important and promising material, have been the subject of intensive research and development due to their many scientific and practical applications. They are designed to guide light along its length by confining as much light as possible in its core. The interaction between the propagating light with the fiber material is the foundation of the development of various applications such as optical amplifiers, fiber lasers, sensors etc.

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  • Different terms are employed in the literature to specify this method on investigations: dualbeam coherent interferometry or laser Doppler interferometry, optical coherence tomography (OCT) or optical coherence reflectometry. OCT is analogous to ultrasonic imaging, which measures the intensity of reflected infrared light rather than reflected sound waves from the sample. Time gating is employed so that the time for the light to be reflected back (or echo delay time) is used to assess the intensity of back-reflection as a function of depth.

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