The Reserve Banks perform these services as f iscal agents for these enti-
ties. Securities are safekept in the form of electronic records of securities
held in custody accounts. Securities are transferred according to instruc-
tions provided by parties with access to the system. Access to the Fed-
wire Securities Service is limited to depository institutions that maintain
accounts with a Reserve Bank, and a few other organizations, such as
federal agencies, government-sponsored enterprises, and state govern-
ment treasurer’s off ices (which are designated by the U.S.
The objectives of Alberta Environment’s approach to setting wastewater release
standards are to ensure water quality objectives are maintained, that appropriate pollution
prevention and control technologies are adopted so that substance releases to receiving
waters are minimized. Two standards are developed to assess the limit that should be
applied in an approval: one standard is based on best available technology economically
achievable, and the second is based on maintaining water quality objectives. The
technology-based standard is the minimum effort required. ...
Thus, rather than merely being an exercise of redactive skills, writing enhances one’s
ability to ‘see’ by enabling the writer to abstract and objectify his/her understandings
from his/her concrete involvements (Ong, 1982).
For the pre-service teachers of this study, tutoring an ESL student in writing and
reflecting on that experience through the maintenance of journals were designed as
experiences that would provide them with opportunities to critically examine ways in
which ESL learners develop writing skills in English.
The purpose of this book is to offer a unifying conceptual framework
for the normative study of taxation and related subjects in public eco-
nomics. Such a framework necessarily begins with a statement of the
social objective, taken here to be the maximization of a conventional
social welfare function, and then asks how various government instru-
ments are best orchestrated to achieve it. The structure is built on the
foundation provided by the fundamental theorems of welfare econom-
Currently, one of the most established and widely accepted stem cell bank systems is
umbilical cord blood banking. However, the establishement of somatic stem cell bank
other than cord blood (non-hematopoietic stem cells) is still underway. The nature of
somatic stem/progenitor cells is much different from that of embryonic stem (ES) cells
and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Somatic stem/progenitor cells possess limited
ability to differentiate compared with ES cells and iPS cells.
This paper focuses on developing an empirical strategy for measuring the effect of pollution on
health. Specifically, I look at the effect of air pollution on children's hospitalization for asthma. Childhood
asthma is of particular interest for two reasons: 1) asthma is the leading chronic condition affecting children;
and 2) current pollution standards are based on adult health responses to pollution and children face a greater
risk from pollution exposure due to the sensitivity of their developing biological systems.
This study builds on earlier work in five ways.
The smart money hypothesis states that investor money is “smart” enough
to f low to funds that will outperform in the future, that is, that investors have
genuine fund selection ability.
1 Research into smart money in the mutual fund
context was initiated by Gruber (1996). His aim is to understand the continued
expansion of the actively managed mutual fund sector despite the widespread
evidence that on average active fundmanagers do not add value.
The elderly population is seen differently in developing
and developed countries. In the former, the age limit for
a person to be considered old is 60 years; in the latter,
this age limit is 65 years. This differentiation emerged
during the First United Nations World Summit on
Population Aging, through Resolution number 39/125(1).
The need to establish chronological parameters for old
age becomes more relevant as social and health actions
Measure risk: Accurate and timely measurement of risk is essential to
effective risk management. A bank that does not have risk measurement
tools has limited ability to control or monitor risk levels. Further, more
sophisticated measurement tools are needed as the complexity of the risk
increases. A bank should periodically test to make sure that the
measurement tools it uses are accurate.
The importance of sustainable management of non-market forest goods and services has increased
during the last few years. This is also reflected in a number of policy documents within the EU. The
new EU Rural Development Regulation speaks about the “non-productive investments", as
investments to enhance the public amenity value of forests. The stakeholder consultation process
within the EU Forestry Strategy and the report of the strategy’s implementation identify the issue of
creating markets for currently non-market forest goods and services as an emerging issue.
Chapter 19 Insurance Versus Incentives
19.1. Insurance with recursive contracts
This chapter studies a planner who designs an eﬃcient contract to supply insurance in the presence of incentive constraints imposed by his limited ability either to enforce contracts or to observe households’ actions or incomes.
Marketers are being challenged by a deluge of data that is well beyond the capacity of their organizations to
comprehend and use. Their strategies are not keeping up with the disruptive effects of technology-empowered
customers; the proliferation of media, channel, and customer contact points; or the possibilities for microsegmentation.
Closing the widening gap between the accelerating complexity of their markets and the limited ability of their
organizations to respond demands new thinking about marketing capabilities.
Encounters with Phagocytes
Phagocytosis and Inflammation Phagocytosis of microbes is a major innate host defense that limits the growth and spread of pathogens. Phagocytes appear rapidly at sites of infection in conjunction with the initiation of inflammation. Ingestion of microbes by both tissue-fixed macrophages and migrating phagocytes probably accounts for the limited ability of most microbial agents to cause disease.
Reduced levels of clinical or radiological pneumonia in clin-
ical trials of a nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
provide an estimate of the vaccine-preventable disease burden
(valency indicates the number of serotypes against which the
vaccine provides protection; conjugate refers to conjugation of
polysaccharides to a protein backbone). In a study in The
Gambia, 37 percent of radiological pneumonia was prevented,
reflecting the amount of disease caused by S. pneumoniae, and
mortality was reduced by 16 percent (Cutts and others 2005).
All SAIs face a situation in which the potential audits they might perform far exceed the audit
resources that are available, in terms of the number and mix of skills of the audit staff. These
constraints limit both the number and the type of audits that an SAI can undertake. For
example, audit staff that are skilled in performing certain kinds of regularity audits may not
have the skills needed to carry out certain types of performance audits and vice versa. Thus,
in seeking high levels of quality, the first task of an SAI (or of...
Initially, buying green power in competitive retail markets entailed switching electricity service
from the incumbent utility to a green power supplier. However, with few exceptions, green
power marketers have found it difficult to compete or to persuade customers to switch suppliers.
As a remedy, a number of states now require default suppliers (which are often the incumbent
distribution utilities) to offer green power options to their customers.
For reference purposes, I’ll mention some of the common ways
to document requirements and planning information. If nothing
else, knowing the common lingo helps translate between the
various methods used by different organizations. You’ll find
some teams document the requirements informally: “Oh,
requirements…just go talk to Fred.” Others have elaborate
templates and review procedures that break these documents
into insanely small (and possibly overlapping) pieces owned by
• Marketing requirements document (MRD).
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has widened
the horizons of radiation therapy due to its ability to
conformradiation dose distributions to complex tumor
target volumes while sparing nearby critical structures
as much as physically possible. IMRT has also led to
paradigm shifts in all elements of the chain of radiotherapy,
from treatment prescription over treatment
planning (“inverse” planning) to treatment delivery and