Linear regulator

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  • A buck converter is a step-down DC to DC converter. Its design is similar to the step-up boost converter, and like the boost converter it is a switched-mode power supply that uses two switches (a transistor and a diode), an inductor and a capacitor. The simplest way to reduce the voltage of a DC supply is to use a linear regulator (such as a 7805), but linear regulators waste energy as they operate by dissipating excess power as heat.

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  • This report provides an overview of the statutory framework, key players, infrastructure, resources, tools, and operations associated with enforcement and compliance of the major pollution control laws and regulations administered by EPA. It also outlines the roles of federal (including regional offices) and state regulators, as well as the regulated community. Understanding the many facets of how all federal pollution control laws are enforced, and the responsible parties involved, can be challenging.

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  • Chapter 5 Linear Quadratic Dynamic Programming 5.1. Introduction This chapter describes the class of dynamic programming problems in which the return function is quadratic and the transition function is linear. This specification leads to the widely used optimal linear regulator problem

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  • This paper borrows from the empirical literature on non-financial firms to explain the capital structure of large, publicly traded banks. It uncovers empirical regularities that are inconsistent with a first order effect of capital regulation on banks’ capital structure. Instead, the paper suggests that there are considerable similarities between banks’ and non-financial firms’ capital structures.

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  • The resulting view, that financial markets can be subject to inherent instability, induces governments to intervene to provide depositor protection in some form or other. Explicit deposit insurance is one approach, while an explicit or implicit deposit guarantee is another. In either case, general prudential supervision also occurs to limit the risk incurred by insurers or guarantors. To control the incentives of bank owners who rely too heavily on government funded deposit insurance, governments typically enforce some control over bank owners.

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  • Biodiversity is fundamental to sustaining life, providing critical ecosystem services such as food provisioning, water purification, flood and drought control, nutrient cycling, and climate regulation, amongst many others. These services are essential to support human well-being and economic growth. Yet despite the significant economic, social and cultural values of biodiversity and ecosystem services, biodiversity worldwide is being lost, and in some areas at an accelerating rate.

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  • Estrogen receptors and serotonin receptors coexist in cells in a wide variety of tissues, and this critical review of the literature suggests that many of E2's effects may be medi- ated by changes in the actions of serotonin (5HT). Serot- onin is usually considered to be a neurotransmitter, but surprisingly, only 1% of serotonin in the human body is found in the CNS [4].

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  • The Environmental Protection Act 1990 applies with regard to statutory nuisance (section 80). However, mobile operators will rarely stay at a single location long enough to satisfy the criteria for statutory nuisance. If the operation is at defined premises, eg a supermarket car park or at a residential or commercial address, action could be taken against the owner or occupier of the land. There are also requirements under this legislation for the correct disposal of waste.

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  • This failure by states and the federal government to equalize tobacco taxes has led to a surge in the popularity and consumption of other tobacco prod- ucts. Manufacturers of these products are also spending millions of dollars per day on marketing and capitalizing on the failure of the Obama Admin- istration and the FDA to move forward with regulating tobacco products other than smokeless tobacco and cigarettes.

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  • Procrastination is potentially relevant to all five FSA capability categories and to whether many of the facilities proposed in the National Strategy are widely accessed. There is limited evidence that awareness of the procrastination problem is an effective antidote at the individual level. Many behavioural economists take the view that the best response is not informing consumers of the problem or trying to change them but institutional design and regulation that recognises the psychology.

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  • Note, however, that the securities laws of applicable non-U.S. jurisdictions, which are beyond the scope of this article, must be complied with. Although Regulation S provides a complex hierarchy of offering types and the corresponding requirements for each, the basic principle is that there must be no “directed selling efforts” in (toward) the United States.

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  • Academic literature has raised questions about the effectiveness of such arrangements, pointing out that a "regulatory arm" of an exchange can be financed through the budget of the profit making entity. Unless the budget of the regulatory arm is both independent and substantial, the number of instances that it can investigate may arguably be insufficient (Brown, 2008). The importance of further insulating the regulatory entities which are part of exchange groups has therefore been repeatedly stressed in public debate.

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  • The U.S. Congress and state legislatures, and governments in countries worldwide, are expected to become more aggressive in the regulation of the Internet, and privacy issues will be part of those efforts. At the most basic level, privacy of information is tied to ownership of information. Ownership of information is clear in many cases. If an enterprise, for example, creates information about its products, business strategies, or operations, that information is the property of the enterprise.

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  • As discussed above in the context of the Asian financial crisis, capital controls and bank regulation in a particular country can dampen international credit flows or, depending on the type of regulation, they can favour one form of international credit over another. That is, international credit can flow both directly and indirectly, with the particular mix affected by policy and the organisation of globally active banks.

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  • After examining the existing postgraduate studies, the report discusses potential postgra- duate degrees at the Masters level that could be offered in the context of the «European Area of Higher Education», although it limits the discussion to the most consolidated de- grees, perhaps because they previously were specialized degrees such as «Market Re- search Techniques» or «Actuarial and Financial Sciences», or perhaps because they were associated to European Union regulated professions, such as that of «Chartered Accoun- tant», or even perhaps due to the depth of the existi...

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  • Vài nét lịch sử phát triển lý thuyết điều khiển . - Phương pháp biến phân cổ điển Euler_Lagrange 1766 . - Tiêu chuẩn ổn định Lyapunov 1892 . - Trí tuệ nhân tạo 1950 . - Hệ thống điều khiển máy bay siêu nhẹ 1955 . - Nguyên lý cực tiểu Pontryagin 1956 . - Phương pháp quy hoạch động Belman 1957 . - Điều khiển tối ưu tuyến tính dạng toàn phương LQR ( LQR : Linear Quadratic Regulator )

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  • FUZZY OBSERVER DESIGN In practical applications, the state of a system is often not readily available. Under such circumstances, the question arises whether it is possible to determine the state from the system response to some input over some period of time. For linear systems, a linear observer w1x provides an affirmative answer if the system is observable. Likewise, a systematic design method of fuzzy regulators and fuzzy observers plays an important role for fuzzy control systems.

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  • A gate valve is a linear motion valve used to start or stop fluid flow; however, it does not regulate or throttle flow. The name gate is derived from the appearance of the disk in the flow stream. Figure 4 illustrates a gate valve. The disk of a gate valve is completely removed from the flow stream when the valve is fully open. This characteristic offers virtually no resistance to flow when the valve is open. Hence, there is little pressure drop across an open gate valve. When the valve is fully closed, a disk-to-seal ring contact surface exists for 360°, and good sealing is...

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