A buck converter is a step-down DC to DC converter. Its design is similar to the step-up boost converter, and like the boost converter it is a switched-mode power supply that uses two switches (a transistor and a diode), an inductor and a capacitor.
The simplest way to reduce the voltage of a DC supply is to use a linear regulator (such as a 7805), but linear regulators waste energy as they operate by dissipating excess power as heat.
This report provides an overview of the statutory framework, key players, infrastructure,
resources, tools, and operations associated with enforcement and compliance of the major
pollution control laws and regulations administered by EPA. It also outlines the roles of federal
(including regional offices) and state regulators, as well as the regulated community.
Understanding the many facets of how all federal pollution control laws are enforced, and the
responsible parties involved, can be challenging.
Chapter 5 Linear Quadratic Dynamic Programming
This chapter describes the class of dynamic programming problems in which the return function is quadratic and the transition function is linear. This speciﬁcation leads to the widely used optimal linear regulator problem
This paper borrows from the empirical literature on non-financial firms to explain the
capital structure of large, publicly traded banks. It uncovers empirical regularities that are
inconsistent with a first order effect of capital regulation on banks’ capital structure. Instead,
the paper suggests that there are considerable similarities between banks’ and non-financial
firms’ capital structures.
The resulting view, that financial markets can be subject to inherent instability,
induces governments to intervene to provide depositor protection in some form or
other. Explicit deposit insurance is one approach, while an explicit or implicit deposit
guarantee is another. In either case, general prudential supervision also occurs to limit
the risk incurred by insurers or guarantors. To control the incentives of bank owners
who rely too heavily on government funded deposit insurance, governments typically
enforce some control over bank owners.
Biodiversity is fundamental to sustaining life, providing
critical ecosystem services such as food provisioning, water
purification, flood and drought control, nutrient cycling, and
climate regulation, amongst many others. These services
are essential to support human well-being and economic
growth. Yet despite the significant economic, social and
cultural values of biodiversity and ecosystem services,
biodiversity worldwide is being lost, and in some areas at
an accelerating rate.
Estrogen receptors and serotonin receptors coexist in cells
in a wide variety of tissues, and this critical review of the
literature suggests that many of E2's effects may be medi-
ated by changes in the actions of serotonin (5HT). Serot-
onin is usually considered to be a neurotransmitter, but
surprisingly, only 1% of serotonin in the human body is
found in the CNS .
The Environmental Protection Act 1990 applies with regard to statutory nuisance
(section 80). However, mobile operators will rarely stay at a single location long
enough to satisfy the criteria for statutory nuisance. If the operation is at defined
premises, eg a supermarket car park or at a residential or commercial address,
action could be taken against the owner or occupier of the land. There are also
requirements under this legislation for the correct disposal of waste.
This failure by states and the federal government to equalize tobacco taxes
has led to a surge in the popularity and consumption of other tobacco prod-
ucts. Manufacturers of these products are also spending millions of dollars
per day on marketing and capitalizing on the failure of the Obama Admin-
istration and the FDA to move forward with regulating tobacco products
other than smokeless tobacco and cigarettes.
Procrastination is potentially relevant to all five FSA capability categories and to
whether many of the facilities proposed in the National Strategy are widely accessed.
There is limited evidence that awareness of the procrastination problem is an effective
antidote at the individual level. Many behavioural economists take the view that the
best response is not informing consumers of the problem or trying to change them but
institutional design and regulation that recognises the psychology.
Note, however, that the securities laws of applicable non-U.S. jurisdictions, which are beyond
the scope of this article, must be complied with. Although Regulation S provides a complex
hierarchy of offering types and the corresponding requirements for each, the basic principle is
that there must be no “directed selling efforts” in (toward) the United States.
Academic literature has raised questions about the effectiveness of such
arrangements, pointing out that a "regulatory arm" of an exchange can be
financed through the budget of the profit making entity. Unless the budget of the
regulatory arm is both independent and substantial, the number of instances that
it can investigate may arguably be insufficient (Brown, 2008). The importance
of further insulating the regulatory entities which are part of exchange groups
has therefore been repeatedly stressed in public debate.
The U.S. Congress and state legislatures, and governments in countries worldwide, are expected to become
more aggressive in the regulation of the Internet, and privacy issues will be part of those efforts.
At the most basic level, privacy of information is tied to ownership of information. Ownership of information
is clear in many cases. If an enterprise, for example, creates information about its products, business strategies,
or operations, that information is the property of the enterprise.
As discussed above in the context of the Asian financial crisis, capital controls and bank
regulation in a particular country can dampen international credit flows or, depending on the
type of regulation, they can favour one form of international credit over another. That is,
international credit can flow both directly and indirectly, with the particular mix affected by
policy and the organisation of globally active banks.
After examining the existing postgraduate studies, the report discusses potential postgra-
duate degrees at the Masters level that could be offered in the context of the «European
Area of Higher Education», although it limits the discussion to the most consolidated de-
grees, perhaps because they previously were specialized degrees such as «Market Re-
search Techniques» or «Actuarial and Financial Sciences», or perhaps because they were
associated to European Union regulated professions, such as that of «Chartered Accoun-
tant», or even perhaps due to the depth of the existi...
Vài nét lịch sử phát triển lý thuyết điều khiển .
- Phương pháp biến phân cổ điển Euler_Lagrange 1766 .
- Tiêu chuẩn ổn định Lyapunov 1892 .
- Trí tuệ nhân tạo 1950 .
- Hệ thống điều khiển máy bay siêu nhẹ
- Nguyên lý cực tiểu Pontryagin 1956 .
- Phương pháp quy hoạch động Belman 1957
- Điều khiển tối ưu tuyến tính dạng toàn
phương LQR ( LQR : Linear Quadratic
FUZZY OBSERVER DESIGN
In practical applications, the state of a system is often not readily available. Under such circumstances, the question arises whether it is possible to determine the state from the system response to some input over some period of time. For linear systems, a linear observer w1x provides an affirmative answer if the system is observable. Likewise, a systematic design method of fuzzy regulators and fuzzy observers plays an important role for fuzzy control systems.
A gate valve is a linear motion valve used to start or stop fluid flow; however, it does not
regulate or throttle flow. The name gate is derived from the appearance of the disk in the flow
stream. Figure 4 illustrates a gate valve.
The disk of a gate valve is completely removed from the flow stream when the valve is fully
open. This characteristic offers virtually no resistance to flow when the valve is open. Hence,
there is little pressure drop across an open gate valve.
When the valve is fully closed, a disk-to-seal ring contact surface exists for 360°, and good