Meta-theoretical results on the decidability, generatire capacity, and recognition complexity o~ several syntactic theories are surveyed These include context-free , lexical func-computer o r a parallel array of neurons. These results over whole classes of machines are very difficult to obtain, and none el any significance exist for parsiD.g problems. Restricting ourselves to a specific machine model and an algorithm M for j', we can ask about the cost. (e.g time or space) e(z) of executing M on a specific input z. ...
he field of Intelligent Systems has expanded enormously during the last two decades with many theoretical and practical results already available, which are the outcome of the synergetic merging of classical fields such as system theory, artificial intelligence, information theory, soft computing, operations research, linguistic theory and others. This book presents a collection of timely contributions that cover a wide, well-selected range of topics within the field. The book contains forty-seven contributions with an emphasis on computational and processing issues.
This paper discusses the task of formulating a model of linguistic performance and proposes an approach toward this goal that is oriented toward an embodiment of the model as a digital-computer program. The methodology of current linguistic theory is criticized for several of its features that render it inapplicable to a realistic model of performance, and remedies for these deficiencies are proposed.
Interactive information visualization is an emerging and powerful research technique that can be used to understand models of language and their abstract representations. Much of what computational linguists fall back upon to improve NLP applications and to model language “understanding” is structure that has, at best, only an indirect attestation in observable data. An important part of our research progress thus depends on our ability to fully investigate, explain, and explore these structures, both empirically and relative to accepted linguistic theory. ...
An important goal of computational linguistics has been to use linguistic theory to guide the construction of computationally efficient real-world natural language processing systems. At first glance, generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) appears to be a blessing on two counts. First, the precise formalisms of GPSG might be a direct and fransparent guide for parser design and implementation. Second, since GPSG has weak context-free generative power and context-free languages can be parsed in O(n ~) by a wide range of algorithms, GPSG parsers would appear to run in polynomial time.
Government-Binding Parsing has become attractive in the last few years. A variety of systems have been designed in view of a correspondence as direct as possible with linguistic theory ([Johnson, 1989], [Pollard and Sag, 1991], [Kroch, 1989]). These approaches can be classified by their method of handling global constraints. Global constraints are syntactic in nature: They cover more than one projection. In contrast, local constraints can be checked inside a projection and, thus, lend themselves to a treatment in the lexicon. ...
The language of law reflects the overlapping, competing and co-existing nature of legal discourse; its form both the product of its linguistic history and a response to the fluidity of legal culture. This book examines legal language as a language for special purposes, evaluating the functions and characteristics of legal language and the terminology of law. Using examples drawn from major and lesser legal languages, it examines the major legal languages themselves, beginning with Latin through German, French and English.
phonetic changes, for example, includes things that have been said before, and perhaps more definitively; but, aside from the fact that this part contains many valuable and original details, even a superficial reading will show to what extent its omission would detract from an understanding of the principles upon which F. de Saussure erects his system of static linguistics. We are aware of our responsibility to our critics. We are also aware of our responsibility to the author, who probably would not have authorized the publication of these pages.
This Second Edition of the foundational textbook "An Introduction to Applied Linguistics" provides a state-of-the-art account of contemporary applied linguistics. The kinds of language problems of interest to applied linguists are discussed and a distinction drawn between the different research approach taken by theoretical linguists and by applied linguists to what seem to be the same problems.
What are the compelling reasons for carrying out dynamic speech modeling? We provide the answer in two related aspects. First, scientific inquiry into the human speech code has been relentlessly pursued for several decades. As an essential carrier of human intelligence and knowledge, speech is the most natural form of human communication. Embedded in the speech code are linguistic (as well as para-linguistic) messages, which are conveyed through four levels of the speech chain.
Part 2 of ebook "An Introduction to Applied Linguistics" provides to reader contents as: Applied linguistics and language use, the professionalising of applied linguists, applied linguistics: no ‘bookish theoric’, the applied linguistics challenge. Inviting you to refer.
ProLiV - Animated Process-modeler of Complex (Computational) Linguistic Methods and Theories - is a fully modular, ﬂexible, XML-based stand-alone Java application, used for computer-assisted learning in Natural Language Processing (NLP) or Computational Linguistics (CL).
This paper introduces primitive Optimality Theory (OTP), a linguistically motivated formalization of OT. OTP specifies the class of autosegmental representations, the universal generator Gen, and the two simple families of permissible constraints. In contrast to less restricted theories using Generalized Alignment, OTP's optimal surface forms can be generated with finite-state methods adapted from (Ellison, 1994). Unfortunately these methods take time exponential on the size of the grammar. Indeed the generation problem is shown NP-complete in this sense. ...
Critical applied linguistics is not yet a
term that has wide currency. What is
Critical Applied Linguistics? Is it an
approach, a theory or a discipline? Simply
put, it is a critical approach to applied
linguistics. Such an understanding,
however, leads to several further
questions: What is applied linguistics?
What is meant by “critical”? Is critical
applied linguistics merely the addition of
a critical approach to applied linguistics?
Or is it something more?
This paper examines the theory of translation in Quine's Word and Object and attempts to show that it involves tacit appeal to a premise concerning a regularity in the behavior of bilinguals. The regularity is one whose existence is neither explained nor rendered probable by the theory.
The identiﬁcation of different nominal phrases in a discourse as used to refer to the same (discourse) entity is essential for achieving robust natural language understanding (NLU). The importance of this task is directly ampliﬁed by the ﬁeld of Natural Language Processing (NLP) currently moving towards high-level linguistic tasks requiring NLU capabilities such as e.g. recognizing textual entailment. This tutorial aims at providing the NLP community with a gentle introduction to the task of coreference resolution from both a theoretical and an application-oriented perspective. ...
This paper describes an algorithm for detecting empty nodes in the Penn Treebank (Marcus et al., 1993), finding their antecedents, and assigning them function tags, without access to lexical information such as valency. Unlike previous approaches to this task, the current method is not corpus-based, but rather makes use of the principles of early Government-Binding theory (Chomsky, 1981), the syntactic theory that underlies the annotation.
For German, most transformational lingusitic theories such as GB posit center-embedding as the underlying word order of sentences with embedded clauses: Weft ich [das Fahrrad zu reparieren] versprochen habe Because I the bike (ace) to repair promised have Because I promised to repair the bike However, far more common is a construction in which the entire subordinate clause is extraposed: Weil ich ti versprochen habe, [das Fahrrad zu reparieren]i.
Style in language is more than just surface appeaxance, on the contrary, it is an essential part of the meaning conveyed by the writer. A computational theory of style could be of great use in many computational linguistics applications. A system that is 'stylistically aware' could analyze the writer's stylistic intent and understand the complex interaction of choices that produce a certain effect. In applications such as machine translation, a computational theory of stylistics would allow the preservation or modification of stylistic effects across languages.
Various feature descriptions are being employed in constrained-based grammar formalisms. The common notational primitive of these descriptions are functional attributes called features. The descriptions considered in this paper are the possibly quantified first-order formulae obtained from a signature of features and sorts. We establish a complete firstorder theory F T by means of three axiom schemes and construct three elementarily equivalent models. One of the models consists of so-called feature graphs, a data structure common in computational linguistics. ...