The views and designations expressed in this publication are those of its authors and do not necessarily repre-
sent officially-adopted views of the Ramsar Convention or its Secretariat or of The World Health Organization.
All reasonable precautions have been taken by the Ramsar Convention to verify the information contained in
this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either
expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader.
The data collected and analyzed helps to inform
dental public health policy and programming.
It also provides a baseline for noting any
improvements that may occur as a result
of new oral health promotion and disease
prevention initiatives with the goal of
achieving better outcomes.
One of the reasons oral health was included as
a component of the CHMS was to enable future
evaluation of the association of oral health
with major health concerns such as diabetes,
respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.
Periodontitis is a chronic infection that results from the interaction of periodontopathogenic
bacteria and host inflammatory and immune responses and is the most common bacterial
infection worldwide. Estimates reveal that 10-15 % of adults have advanced periodontitis,
and periodontal disease can contribute to widespread oral health dysfunction and enhanced
susceptibility to other systemic diseases (Pussinen et al. 2007).
We hope that readers will find valuable information and interesting new
material in the chapters of it.
Since biomass means many things to so many people, it is no wonder that
original book title, Remote sensing of biomass has attracted a series of papers,
many of them very far from remote sensing topics. If there is an odd number
that can not be filed in accordance with the subject at all, the choice will be simple. check
quality of the paper and if it is good, the authors suggest that it would be better to
In the study performed by Purushotham et al. (2011) showed that about 28% of total
hardness in the study site exceeded the desirable limits at 600 mg L-1. Naturally, the water
hardness is due to the presence of alkaline earths such as calcium (Ca) and magnesium
(Mg). Excess of magnesium affects the soil quality, which results in poor crops yield. The
high concentration of magnesium and calcium can cause decrease in water quality and may
cause encrustation in the water supply structure.
The scientific literature suggests that the best unit
to assess ecosystems is the 'socio-ecological system
(SES)' (Gallopin, 1991, Glaser, 2008). SES integrates
ecosystem functions and dynamics as well as
human activities and the interactions of all these.
The SES is equivalent to the SNA's institutional
unit. Considering the production of ecosystem
services, and in particular provisioning services,
SESs are more or less homogenous.
This book, which presents- standing work from leading researchers HRI includes a wide spectrum of leading
ics, is an attempt to capture and present some of the important contributions of HRI a volume. I hope that this book will bring benefits to both experts and novices and professional Vide an insight into the exciting field of HRI.
Although interior design involves creative solutions that can be
fairly subjective, a set of quantiﬁable design criteria has long
been accepted in the industry. Speciﬁcally, such criteria deter-
mine whether the design is functional and suitable for human in-
habitants. Panero and Zelnick  conducted a detailed study
on human dimensions and ergonomics, by carefully deﬁning met-
rics such as height, width, reachable-range, and visibility, which
are believed to be conducive to functional and comfortable de-
The estimated worldwide pesticides application is about 4 million tons (Elersek and Filipic,
2011) and according to Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA) Colombia produce
16.999.216 litters of herbicides, 6.392.387 litters of insecticides, and 19.690.293 kilograms of
fungicides (ICA, 2010) during 2010.
Approximately 1.8 billion people worldwide are engaged in agriculture and it has been
estimated that up to 25 million agriculture laborers have suffered non-intentional
intoxications every year (Alavanja, 2008).
Our model identiﬁes new explanations for why large and small ﬁrms make different insurance offer
decisions; they are based on turnover rates and within-ﬁrm and between-ﬁrm heterogeneities. Large
ﬁrms tend to have greater within-ﬁrm heterogeneity than small ones, and so they are more likely to have
some employees who strongly desire health insurance and less likely to attract only workers who do not
ﬁnd health insurance attractive.
Managing water for all is not only a question of
resource availability and money, but also a matter of
good governance. Water involves a wide range of
stakeholders at basin, municipal, regional, national
and international levels. In the absence of effective
public governance to manage interdependencies
across policy areas and between levels of
government, policymakers inevitably face obstacles to
effectively designing and implementing water reforms.
In addition, good governance and financial
sustainability are inextricably linked.
While the term “Sovereign Wealth Fund” was coined only recently, SWFs have
a more than 50-year history, with the first fund established by Kuwait in 1953.
There is no universally agreed upon definition of SWFs. The U.S. Treasury
Department narrowly defines SWFs as “a government investment vehicle which is
funded by foreign exchange assets, and which manages those assets separately from
the official reserves of the monetary authorities (the Central Bank and reserve-related
functions of the Finance Ministry).”13
The purpose of this study is to examine a current land development decision
within a one-shot decision framework. The main contributions of this study
are as follows. A private real estate investment decision model is proposed
within a one-shot decision framework, which is an innovative study on
analyzing real estate investment problems from an economic viewpoint by
using tools from the possibility theory. The analysis in this paper
demonstrates the relation between the amount of uncertainty and the
investment scale for different types of personal investors.
The Center for Audit Quality (CAQ) was founded in order to promote a robust dialogue about
issues of importance to the U.S. capital markets for the benefit of investors, the public company
auditing profession and the markets as a whole. As part of that mission, the CAQ recently
commissioned a survey to examine an essential participant in the preparation of audited
financial statements: audit committees.
In January 2006, the Committee met again for a two-day
session during which another in-depth evaluation of each
chapter was conducted. At this meeting, members
reviewed the literature that appeared in 2005—using the
same criteria developed for the update process. The list
of 285 publications from 2005 that were considered is
posted on the GINA website.
Mercury is thought to be one of the first metals used by humans. Historical records provide evidence
of mercury use by ancient Chinese and Hindu civilizations. Archaeologists have also found traces of
mercury in an Egyptian tomb dating from 1500 BC and in the writing of a Chinese alchemist around
4500 BC. Both the Egyptians and Chinese may have been using the mercury ore, cinnabar, as a pigment
to paint their tombs, anoint their statues and even preserve their dead.
Many civilizations believed mercury had mystical properties and the power to prolong life.
The extensions of the environment with the integration of sensing systems in
any space, in conjunction with ubiquitous computing are enabling the so-called Smart
Space Sensor Networks. This new generation of networks are offering full connectivity
with any object, through the Internet of Things (IoT) and/or the Web, i.e., the Web of
Things. These connectivity capabilities are making it feasible to sense the behaviours of
people at home and act accordingly. These sensing systems must be integrated within
typical elements found at home such as furniture.
The US dollar appreciated by roughly 25% with respect to the euro and Swiss franc in the
five months following the collapse of Lehman Brothers, and by even more against many
other currencies during this period. Unless accounted for, exchange rate movements of this
size severely distort credit growth rates for those economies where credit stocks have large
foreign currency components. Moreover, they complicate the construction of regional and
global credit aggregates (and growth rates), which requires that credit to borrowers in
different countries be expressed in a common currency....
As this document explains, we and our partners are
now implementing a programme that combines laying
firm foundations for sustainable improvement with
other initiatives designed to have more immediate
impact. The FSA alone will spend up to £10 million
this year in supporting the programme. Taken
together, these initiatives will reach many millions
of people over the next five years.
The programme takes specific account of the
needs of people who may be excluded from the
Based on a review of the current performance values for Alberta mills, other Canadian
mills, and top performing mills in the U.S. and to allow sufficient flexibility for plant
operations during shutdown, start-up and upset conditions, Alberta’s standards for colour
are a monthly average of 50 kg/ADt and a daily maximum of 100 kg/ADt for both new
and existing mills. The values may be applied at approval renewal for existing pulp and
paper mills, and applied directly to any new mills.