Liquid surface

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  • High specific surface area. The amount of gas–liquid surface area per unit volume of material that is attainable in a foam is greater than that in comparable two-phase systems. This property makes gas–liquid foam particularly attractive for interphase mass transfer operations. Examples of such processes are froth flotation, in which valuable hydrophobic particles are recovered from a slurry, the recovery of oil sands, and the stripping of gases from effluent by absorption into the liquid phase....

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  • Tham khảo sách 'liquid-gas relative permeabilities in fractures: effectsof flow structures, phase transformation and surface roughness', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, hoá học - dầu khí phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Gas–liquid multiphase flows play an essential role in the workings of Nature and the enterprises of mankind. Our everyday encounter with liquids is nearly always at a free surface, such as when drinking, washing, rinsing, and cooking. Similarly, such flows are in abundance in industrial applications: heat transfer by boiling is the preferred mode in both conventional and nuclear power plants, and bubbledriven circulation systems are used in metal processing operations such as steel making, ladle metallurgy, and the secondary refining of aluminum and copper.

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  • Annals of Mathematics We study the motion of an incompressible perfect liquid body in vacuum. This can be thought of as a model for the motion of the ocean or a star. The free surface moves with the velocity of the liquid and the pressure vanishes on the free surface. This leads to a free boundary problem for Euler’s equations, where the regularity of the boundary enters to highest order. We prove local existence in Sobolev spaces assuming a “physical condition”, related to the fact that the pressure of a fluid has to be positive. ...

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  • AMATH 581 Homework 2 Shallow Liquid Simulation Erik Neumann 610 N. 65th St., Seattle, WA 98103 erikn@MyPhysicsLab.com November 19, 2001 Abstract A model of shallow fluid behavior is evaluated using a variety of numerical solving techniques. The model is defined by a pair of partial differential equations which have two dimensions in space and one dimension of time. The equations concern the vorticity ω and the stream function ψ which are related to the velocity field of the fluid. The equations are first discretized in time and space.

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  • Surface effects in film coating Michael E.Aulton SUMMARY This chapter will explain the significance of the stages of impingement, wetting, spreading and penetration of atomized droplets at the surface of tablet or multiparticulate cores. It will explain some of the fundamental aspects of solid-liquid interfaces which are important to the process of film coating. This chapter will emphasize the importance of controlling the ‘wetting power’ of the spray and the ‘wettability’ of the substrate, and will explain how this can be achieved by changes in formulation and process parameters.

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  • Double-layer carbon supercapacitors (electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLCs)) based on two carbon electrodes of high surface area separated by an electrolyte are the most popular electrochemical supercapacitors. The charge process is electrostatic with charge separation at the two electrode–electrolyte interfaces. The EDLCs can thus be modeled with two capacitances in series with what is called equivalent series resistance (ESR).

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  • ● Adsorption chromatography • The stationary phase is an adsorbent (like silica gel or any other silica-based packing) • The separation is based on repeated adsorption-desorption steps. ● Normal-phase chromatography • The stationary bed is strongly polar in nature (e.g., silica gel), and the mobile phase is nonpolar (such as n-hexane or tetrahydrofuran). • Polar samples are retained on the polar surface of the column packing longer than less polar materials.

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  • Due to the widespread use of ceramic coatings, several synthesis techniques have been developed in recent decades. The majority of these techniques, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD) and their variants, are focused on the synthesis of flat coatings. Recently, the preceramic polymeric synthesis route has offered the possibility to impregnate preceramic materials into porous matrices prior to pyrolysis in order to create coated or composite materials This technique, however, leads to pore filling and alterations of the original substrate texture....

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  • Catalysis and Electrocatalysis at Nanoparticle Surfaces reflects many of the new developments of catalysis, surface science, and electrochemistry. The first three chapters indicate the sophistication of the theory in simulating catalytic processes that occur at the solid–liquid and solid–gas interface in the presence of external potential. The first chapter, by Koper and colleagues, discusses the theory of modeling of catalytic and electrocatalytic reactions.

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  • Diamond crystals form deep within the mantle of the earth when carbon is exposed to extreme pressure and very high temperatures. Volcanic rock formations such as kimberlite or lamproite pipes serve as pathways that convey the fragments of rocks and crystals from the mantle to the surface (see.Figure.1). The diamonds, along with vast quantities of magma, are blasted upward in the course of violent eruptions. Kimberlite pipes, the richest source of mined diamonds, are usually shaped like a carrot and can extend as deep as 1 to 2 kilometers underground.

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  • Our knowledge of mass transfer processes has been extended and applied to various fields of science and engineering including industrial and manufacturing processes in recent years. Since mass transfer is a primordial phenomenon, it plays a key role in the scientific researches and fields of mechanical, energy, environmental, materials, bio, and chemical engineering. In this book, energetic authors provide present advances in scientific findings and technologies, and develop new theoretical models concerning mass transfer....

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  • In 1972, the Clean Water Act (CWA) delineated the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into waters and for establishing quality standards for surface waters under the authority of EPA [10]. Under the CWA’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program, stormwater permits were required for sediment runoff from construction sites and discharges of pollutants into surface waters [11]. The permitting system requires adoption of technology-based and water quality-based effluent limits [11,12].

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  • Tham khảo sách 'mass transfer advanced aspects', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Carbon-based nanoparticles and nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have drawn great attention in both academia and industry due to their wide potential applica‐ tions. Owing to their well-defined one-dimensional (1D) interior, CNTs serve as desirable materials for encapsulating molecules, such as water [1-4], ionic liquid [5], drug molecules [6], and biomolecules [7].

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  • The enzymatic kinetics of glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) towards highly crystalline celluloses at the solid–liquid interface was evaluated by applying the novel concept of surface density (q) of the enzyme, which is defined as the amount of adsorbed enzyme divided by the maximum amount of adsorbed enzyme.

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  • The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) plays dual roles in hwnan physiology: digestion and uptake of nutrients and the more daunting task of maintaining immune homeostasis (protecting the body from potentially harmful microbes, while inducing tolerogenic responses to innocuous food, commensals and self-antigens). The unique architecture ofthe GI tract facilitates both ofthese functions; multiple levelsofinfolding results in an immense overall surface area that allows maximal nutrient absorption while housing the largest nwnber ofimmune cells in the body.

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  • After drilling the well, the operator may perform interim reclamation—the practice of reclaiming surfaces that were disturbed to prepare a well for drilling but that are no longer needed. For example, operators may need a 10-acre drill pad to safely drill a series of wells. However, once the wells are drilled, operators may only need 4 acres to safely service the wells over their lifetime. In this case, the operator could reseed and regrade the 6 acres of the initial pad that are no longer needed.

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  • Protein oligomeric complexes have emerged as a major target of current research because of their key role in aggregation processes in living systems andin vitro. Hydrophobic and charged surfaces may favour the self-assembly process by recruiting proteins and modifying their interactions. We found that equine lysozyme assembles into multimeric complexes with oleic acid (ELOA) at the solid–liquid interface within an ion-exchange chromatography column preconditioned with oleic acid.

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  • air-water jet moist air is cooled below its dew point by refrigerated water so that although the air leaves close to saturation with water, it has less moisture per unit volume than when it entered. 2. Apparatus to wash particulates and soluble impurities from air by passing the airstream through a liquid bath or spray. { er wash ər } air-water jet [ENG] A jet of mixed air and water which leaves a nozzle at high velocity; used in cleaning the surfaces of concrete or rock. { ¦er ¦wod ər jet } ˙ air-water storage tank [ENG] A water storage tank...

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