We propose an unsupervised method for distinguishing literal and non-literal usages of idiomatic expressions. Our method determines how well a literal interpretation is linked to the overall cohesive structure of the discourse. If strong links can be found, the expression is classiﬁed as literal, otherwise as idiomatic. We show that this method can help to tell apart literal and non-literal usages, even for idioms which occur in canonical form.
Recognizing idioms in a sentence is important to sentence understanding. This paper discusses the lexical knowledge of idioms for idiom recognition. The challenges are that idioms can be ambiguous between literal and idiomatic meanings, and that they can be “transformed” when expressed in a sentence. However, there has been little research on Japanese idiom recognition with its ambiguity and transformations taken into account. We propose a set of lexical knowledge for idiom recognition.
When computer programs disambiguate words in a sentence, they often encounter non-literal or novel usages not included in their lexicon. In a recent study, Georgia Green (personal communication) estimated that 17% to 20% of the content word senses encountered in various types of normal English text are not fisted in the dictionary. While these novel word senses are generally valid, they occur in such great numbers, and with such little individual frequency that it is impractical to explicity include them all within the lexicon. ...
When machine translation (MT) knowledge is automatically constructed from bilingual corpora, redundant rules are acquired due to translation variety. These rules increase ambiguity or cause incorrect MT results. To overcome this problem, we constrain the sentences used for knowledge extraction to "the appropriate bilingual sentences for the MT." In this paper, we propose a method using translation literalness to select appropriate sentences or phrases.
What is an error in English?
The concept of language errors is a fuzzy one. I’ll leave to linguists the technical definitions. Here we’re concerned only with deviations from the
standard use of English as judged by sophisticated users such as professional writers, editors, teachers, and literate executives and personnel officers. The
aim of this site is to help you avoid low grades, lost employment opportunities, lost business, and titters of amusement at the way you write or speak.
The term ìspreadsheetî covers a wide variety of elements useful for quantitative
analysis of all kinds. Essentially, a spreadsheet is a simple tool consisting of a
matrix of cells that can store numbers, text, or formulas. The spreadsheetís power
comes from its ability to recalculate results as you change the contents of other
cells. No longer does the user need to do these calculations by hand or on a
Business Letters for Busy People is designed to be used, not
just read. You not only get the easy-to-read impact of chapter-bychapter
“how to” information, but each section is also filled with
checklists, ready-to-use letters and guidelines to help you do your
job better, more effectively, more easily — right now! It’s literally
a user’s manual for the business professional.
A little something about Origami Boxes: the art of origami is not just about pretty flowers or birds or animals… it can also be about creating something that’s actually really useful! I’ve got little paper boxes all over my house, mainly in my office to keep little things in, but also in the lounge to keep dried flowers in, and other ornaments, but to be honest they’re great ornaments on their own! Especially if you make them with beautiful paper… and they are so easy!, Origami boxes are quite useful as gift boxes and small containers. They're fun to make...
Do you want to ace your SATs, write literate papers, and find the perfect language to impress would-be bosses at job interviews? Words You Should Know in High School will help you achieve the success you're looking for-one word at a time. This easy-to-use book features more than 1,000 essential words that arm you with the vocabulary you'll need to tackle real-world tasks-from debating current events to writing essays for your college applications.
All languages have phrases or sentences that cannot be understood liter-
ally. Even if you know the meaning of all the words in a phrase and under-
stand all the grammar of the phrase completely, the meaning of the phrase
may still be confusing. Many proverbs, informal phrases, and common say-
ings offer this kind of problem. A phrase or sentence of this type is said
to be idiomatic. This dictionary is a collection of the idiomatic phrases and
sentences that occur frequently in American English. The third edition
contains more than one thousand idiomatic expressions not listed in...
It is helpful to remember that there are literally hundreds of thousands of people that have made millions of dollars using the Internet. In fact, the Internet has created more millionaires than any other medium out there — including Real Estate. Individuals who have never even run a smal business, are succeeding online because of how easy it is to run an e-commerce business. Why should you be one of them? Simple! Take advantage of the "information superhighway" and put yourself in front of the explosive growth of the World Wide Web....
All languages have phrases that cannot be understood
literally and, therefore, cannot be used with
confidence. They are opaque or unpredictable
because they don’t have expected, literal meaning.
Even if you know the meaning of all the words in
a phrase and understand all the grammar of the
phrase completely, the meaning of the phrase may
still be confusing. A phrase or sentence of this
type is said to be idiomatic. This dictionary is a
collection of the idiomatic phrases and sentences
that occur frequently in American English.
Success doesn't mean the absence of failures; it means the attainment of ultimate objectives. It means winning the war, not every battle. Edwin C. Bliss You have met people who literally wander through life. They simply accept whatever fate brings them. A few may succeed by accident, but most suffer through a lifetime of frustration and unhappiness. This book is not for them. They have neither the determination to succeed nor the willingness to devote the time and effort necessary to achieve success. This book is for you....
What is an error in English? The concept of language errors is a fuzzy one. I’ll leave to linguists the technical definitions. Here we’re concerned only with deviations from the standard use of English as judged by sophisticated users such as professional writers, editors, teachers, and literate executives and personnel officers. The aim of this site is to help you avoid low grades, lost employment opportunities, lost business, and titters of amusement at the way you write or speak.
III. Một số điều khiển khác
1. Điều khiển Literal Tương tự như điều khiển Label, điều khiển Literal cũng được sử dụng để hiển thị chuỗi văn bản trên trang Web. Nếu muốn hiển thị một chuỗi văn bản trên trang Web, chúng ta có thể đánh nội dung trực tiếp vào trang Web mà không cần phải sử dụng điều khiển. Chỉ sử dụng các điều khiển như Label, Literal để hiển thị khi cần thay đổi nội dung hiển thị ở phía server. ...
Nothing bad there, but could this "(except when the dangers are woman)" be an insecurity.
In Asterix and the Actress just look at his face when his mother brings all those ladies for tea
- he just doesn't want to be there. Asterix is superficial, always optimistic and happy. He isn't the one who makes us laugh at
his antics. On his own he is boring - he just doesn't act like a real person. To me he appears overconfident, too happy, artificial.
Now I'm not knocking Asterix, he is the face of the books, quite literally. Probably one of...
The /usr/bin/awk utility scans each input filename for lines
that match any of a set of patterns specified in prog. The
prog string must be enclosed in single quotes (') to protect
it from the shell. For each pattern in prog there may be an
associated action performed when a line of a filename
matches the pattern. The set of pattern-action statements
may appear literally as prog or in a file specified with the
-f progfile option. Input files are read in order; if there
are no files, the standard input is read. The file name '-'
means the standard input....