This chapter introduces the history, definitional and
semantic issues, spectrum and general importance
of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Nonalcoholic
steatohepatitis (NASH) is a form of metabolic
liver disease in which fatty change (steatosis)
is associated with lobular inflammation, hepatocyte
injury and/or hepatic fibrosis. It comprises a pathogenic
link in the chain of NAFLD that extends from bland
steatosis to some cases of ‘cryptogenic cirrhosis’.
When I was in college at the University of Toronto and struggling with
my own weight (I gained twenty pounds over four years) and constantly
in a rush and under deadline, I took shortcuts to get through the
day. I’d skip breakfast, suck down coffee after coffee, skip lunch, and
then, by day’s end, despite my best efforts to resist, I’d surrender to the
siren call of the fast-food restaurant on my way home and hungrily
devour a burger and fries, scolding myself the whole time. I blew it again,
I’d say. ...
There is a tightly regulated interaction, which is well-conserved in
evolution, between the metabolic and immune systems that is deranged in
states of over- or under-nutrition. Obesity, an energy-rich condition, is
characterized by the activation of an inflammatory process in metaboli-cally active sites such as adipose tissue, liver and immune cells.
The ubiquitous isoform of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase⁄fructose-2,6-bisphos-phatase (uPFK-2), a product of thePfkfb3gene, plays a crucial role in the
control of glycolytic flux. In this study, we demonstrate that Pfkfb3gene
expression is increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse liver. The
Pfkfb3⁄-3566 promoter construct linked to the luciferase reporter gene was
delivered to the liver via hydrodynamic gene transfer.
Document presentation of content: Epidemiology, osteoporosis in GI/Liver associated conditions, etiology, diagnosis, management of osteoporosis, literature references, links to useful websites and consensus statements, queries and feedback.
In ancient Greece, people would journey to an oracle, or fortune teller,
to discover what the future held. The oracle would kill an animal,
perhaps a goat or a sheep, to examine the creature’s liver. A dark red
liver that was smooth was a good sign. A pale liver that was bumpy
foretold bad times ahead.
The liver has long been linked to human courage and strength.
The earliest doctors thought that the liver was one of the three
main organs of the body. The others were the heart and the brain.
Around a.d. 200, the famous Roman doctor Galen declared the liver
to be the most important human...
Adiponectin acts as an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that protects against
obesity-linked metabolic disease, which is generally associated with endo-plasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The physiological effects of adiponectin on
energy metabolism in the liver are mediated by its receptors.