Local anaesthetics reversibly block neural transmission in local tissues. The drugs are bound with specific receptors located inside the sodium channels of cell membranes, and thus block the permeability of sodium ions; this is the mechanism of anaesthetic action of these drugs. As the history of local anaesthetics, Von Anrep discovered the local anaesthetic action of an alkaloid cocaine being contained in the leaves of Erythroxylon coca. Then, Karl Koller used cocaine as a local anaesthetic in ophthalmological surgery.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Medical pharmacology at a glance" presents the following contents: Principles of drug action, drug absorption, distribution and excretion, drug metabolism, local anaesthetics, autonomic nervous system, autonomic drugs acting at cholinergic synapses, drugs acting on the sympathetic system, ocular pharmacology,... and other contents.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Pharmacology for anaesthesia and intensive care" presents the following contents: Basic principles (Drug passage across the cell membrane, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, drug action,...), core drugs in anaesthetic practice (general anaesthetic agents, aeneral anaesthetic agents, local anaesthetics,...)
The administration of general anaesthetics and neuromuscular blocking drugs is generally confined to trained specialists. Nevertheless, nonspecialists are involved in perioperative care and will benefit from an understanding of how these drugs act. Doctors from a variety of specialties use local anaesthetics and the pharmacology of these drugs is discussed in detail.
Drug therapy has an effect on the management of patients in
dentistry. Many drugs produce oro-dental problems; in addition
concurrent medication can interact with drugs which the dentist may
prescribe. The aim of this dictionary is to draw together the effects of
drugs on the teeth, oral and perioral structures and highlight drug
interactions which impact on dental treatment. Drugs taken by outpatients
which may be encountered in general dental practice and
interactions with drugs contained in the Dental Practitioners Formulary
have been included.
In 1932 J & A Churchill Ltd published the first edition of Recent Advances
in Anaesthesia and Analgesia (Including Oxygen Therapy). Nearly 70 years
later we commented in the Preface to the Millennium (21st) edition of Recent
Advances in Anaesthesia and Analgesia that the pace of advances in anaesthesia
showed no sign of abating. Although 2 years further on this statement
remains true, change has now affected the title as well. Harcourt Publishers
Ltd has transferred the title from Churchill Livingstone to Greenwich
Medical Media Ltd.
Cocaine is an alkaloid being contained in the leaves of Erythroxylon coca Lam. or Erythroxylon novogranatense (Morris) Hieronymus of Erythroxylaceae plants. The compound is being used as a local anaesthetic. It also shows stimulating action on the central nervous system; when it is used continuously, psychic dependence on its use appears, resulting in its chronic toxicosis . Cocaine is being abused worldwide; its abuse is most serious in the north and south American continents. Fortunately, in Japan, its abuse is not so many; but it cannot be overlooked.
In 1930 Ferguson modified the technique and published his series of 280 patients who had
prostate needle aspiration biopsy using an 18-gauge needle via the transperineal approach
and was able to remove adequate tissue in 78 to 86% of his cases (Ferguson, 1930) (figure 6).
The patient was placed in the lithotomy position and local anaesthetic was infiltrated just
lateral to the median raphe 1cm anterior to the anus. The index finger of the left hand was
introduced into the rectum guiding an 18 gauge needle introduced into the perineum taking
care to avoid the rectum and urethra....
Ancillary and resuscitation equipment
Check that the patient’s trolley, bed or operating table can be tilted head-
down rapidly. A resuscitation trolley and deﬁbrillator must be available in
all locations where anaesthesia is given and checked regularly in
accordance with local policies.
Equipment and drugs for rarely encountered emergencies, such as
malignant hyperthermia and local anaesthetic toxicity must be available
and checked regularly in accordance with local policies. The location of
these must be clearly signed [17, 18].
(BQ) Part 1 book "Regional anaesthesia, stimulation and ultrasound" presents the following contents: General considerations, head and neck, a brief history of regional anaesthesia, the physiology of acute pain, local anaesthetics and additives, local anaesthetics and additives, peripheral nerve location using nerve stimulators,...