The Soneplex E1 Loop Extender Exchange platform
provides centralized network management and point to
multi-point transport for up to 20 E1 and 40 Nx64 kbps
circuits over the local loop. Suitable for indoor or
outside plant deployment, it provides maximum
operational flexibility while minimizing network
elements and installation time.
ADC LSA-PLUS® connection systems include connection, disconnection and
switching modules for eight or ten pairs, all featuring the patented LSA-PLUS
interconnection displacement connection (IDC) technology.
LSA-PLUS connection systems support connection, line splitting, switching
and earthing of connections in telecommunication and data networks. The
contact is resistant to climatic and other environmental problems. Technical
contact security results in the formation of a gas-tight connection with very
low transmission resistance.
Soneplex Loop Extender Modules
Central Office HDSL
Simplex Power and Idle Code
Simplex Power and Local Power
Repeater Loop Extender (T1) Plus
Repeater Loop Extender (T1)
Quad Loop Extender Module
Quad Loop Extender Module - Short Range
With the recent introduction of the CPM (Continuous Performance Monitoring) module
to the remote QLX product line and Soneplex MPU software release 4.2, DS1 hicap route
diversity can now be added to the "path protection" feature associated with many fiber
rings and OCn multiplexers.
DS1 hicap route diversity allows service providers to extend path protection into the local
loop and provide complete DS1 circuit protection for critical hicap customers.
This application note provides detailed alternatives for transporting the Soneplex
Broadband and Soneplex Loop Extender alarm and performance information from a
remote location back to the central/hubbing location.
The Soneplex Broadband System is used as an intelligent network hub for DS1 hicap
distribution in the local loop. The network interface is one standard electrical DS3
signal. This DS3 signal is demultiplexed into twenty-eight DS1 circuits, which can
then be delivered to up to twenty-eight remote locations utilizing either fiber or
No matter what you call it, adding fiber to the local loop is a major strategic initiative for a
number of carriers. Fiber to the customer premises represents the ultimate broadband
connection for the end user, and promises to help carriers deliver value-added services while
increasing the average revenue per user.
The telephone system remains as the backbone of low-cost telecommunications services in North
America. An understanding of the telephone system is necessary when considering its use for data
Telephone: invented in 1874 by Alexander Graham Bell and patented in 1876
Single wire: In the beginning, the market was for telephones only. It is the customer who used to
wire them between telephones using single wires and the earth as the ground or the
other conductor to complete the circuit.
WAN Phần cứng mạng WAN bạn sử dụng phụ thuộc vào dịch vụ mạng WAN bạn muốn kết nối tới. Mỗi giao thức mạng WAN có các đặc tả và yêu cầu khác nhau đối với phần cứng và phương tiện truyền dẫn. Tuy nhiên, với sự lựa chọn của bạn, có nhiều phần cứng có thể tương thích với nhiều dịch vụ mạng WAN khác nhau.
VoIP IN THE PUBLIC NETWORKS1
VoIP technology is currently mature enough to be implemented in public networks (PSTN, cable TV [CATV], etc.), at least for long-distance telecommunications services to both residential and corporate customers. Either a private IP-based network (an Intranet) or an IP-based VPN can be used to guarantee the required QoS (call acceptance/drop rate, voice quality, etc.). In order to launch VoIP in the access loop, IP-based local access over digital subscriber line (DSL) or Ethernet in the ﬁrst mile (EFM, IEEE P802.
Principle of Locality:
Programs access a small proportion of their address space at any time.
Items accessed recently are likely to be accessed again soon,
e.g., instructions in a loop, induction variables.
Items near those accessed recently are likely to be accessed soon,
E.g., sequential instruction access, array data.
Mạng điện thoại công cộng
• Thuê bao (subscriber)
– Thiết bị kết nối vào mạng (điện thoại, modem)
• Đường thuê bao (subscriber line)
– Đường kết nối giữa thuê bao và mạng – Còn gọi là local loop hay Subscriber loop – Dùng cáp xoắn, chiều dài ngắn vài km
The Soneplex Access Multiplexer System breaks the barrier between customer and
carrier networks by being the first to integrate LAN support into SONET access rings.
By using advanced SONET technology, the Soneplex AM System requires less space and
power while delivering services at a lower cost and higher reliability than conventional
SONET multiplexers. Centralized management provides network control for a high
quality subscriber-based service. Optimized for DS1, DS3, STS-1 and transparent LAN
service access, the Soneplex AM is ideal for SONET local loop applications....
In the telephone networks, the circuit between the subscriber's equipment (e.g. telephone set) and the local exchange in the central office is called the `subscriber loop' or `local loop'. Traditionally, the copper wire has been used as the medium for local loop to provide voice and voice-band data services. Since 1980's, the demand for communications services has increased explosively. There has been a great need for the basic telephone service, i.e. the plain old telephone service (POTS) in developing countries.
Fixed Wireless Access Systems
The goal of this chapter is to review the main techniques used for Wireless Local Loop (WLL) including the Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS), and the Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS). We also present the main aspects, advantages and disadvantages, and applications of these techniques. The chapter also deals with the wireless local loop subscriber terminals, Wireless Local Loop Interfaces to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), and the IEEE 802.16 standards on Broadband Wireless Access.
Regulation of the telecommunications industry has traditionally focused
on the supply side of the industry, chiefl y the retail segment of the market.
Since liberalization of the industry has begun, regulation has gradually
shifted to the wholesale segment of the market. The regulatory agencies
have intervened to regulate access and facilitate entry and, hopefully,
investment in infrastructure. This asymmetric regulation has had mixed
The imagination is questionable (Daily, 1997; Dasgupta, 2000b). In any event, we should
be sceptical of a theory which places such enormous burden on an experience not much more
than two hundred years old (Fogel, 1994; Johnson, 2000). Extrapolation into the past is a
sobering exercise: over the long haul of history (some five thousand years), economic growth
even in the currently-rich countries was for most of the time not much above zero.
The provision of wireless access to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) from a customer premises is known as Wireless Local Loop (WLL). The potential markets of application of WLL range from developing countries to developed ones. In both cases, the liberalization of the telecommunications market has allowed competition among operators around the world. Many communities of difficult access are still waiting for basic telephone service, which could be viable only by wireless technology, which, besides, offers a fast and cost-effective option....
In this chapter, combined trellis coded quantization/modulation scheme is introduced for wireless local loop environment modelled with realizable and practical medium parameters. The performance analysis of the combined system is carried out through the evaluation of signal-to-quantization noise ratio (SQNR) versus signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) curves and bit error probability upper bounds. Simulation studies confirm the analytical results.
10 Wireless Local Loop Systems
Wireline communications networks are expensive and time-consuming to conﬁgure. Growing demand for telecommunications services and the imminent liberalization of the telecommunications market in Europe have greatly increased the interest in radio-based communication (Wireless Local Loops, WLL), also referred to as Radio in the Local Loop (RLL), see . Future competitors of telecommunications monopoly service providers, such as power suppliers who already have their own wide-area networks, will usually lack access networks to the end users....
Cordless Telephony and Radio in the Local Loop (RILL)
The rapid deregulation of telephone network services taking place during the 1990s has brought a large number of new public network operators to the market, each of which has an interest in optimizing the cost of customer connection to network.