Memory is pervasive in digital products. Consider, for example, the personal computer (PC). It has main memory, video memory, translation ROMs, shadow ROMs, scratchpad memory, hard disk, ﬂoppy disk, CDROM, and various other kinds of storage distributed throughout. In addition, the die that contains the microprocessor may also contain one or more levels of cache. A typical PC is depicted in the block diagram of Figure 10.1. It is basically a memory hierarchy connected by several buses and adapters and controlled by a CPU. ...