Despite the great technological advancement experienced in recent years,
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) are still used in many applications from the real
world and still play a central role in infrastructure of industrial automation. PLC operate in
the factory-floor level and are responsible typically for implementing logical control,
regulatory control strategies, such as PID and fuzzy-based algorithms, and safety logics.
Usually PLC are interconnected with the supervision level through communication
network, such as Ethernet networks, in order to work in an integrated form....
This issue of the journal reports some selected contributions from the workshops
BioConcur 2004 chaired by Anna Ingolfsdottir and Hanne Riis Nielson and
BioConcur 2005 chaired by Bud Mishra and Corrado Priami.
There are three contributions from BioConcur 2004. The ﬁrst one is by
Calder, Gilmore and Hillston on the modelling of signalling pathways using the
stochastic process algebra PEPA. The second contribution is by Kuttler and
Niehren on gene regulation in π-calculus.
Let’s look at real CM scenario, explained to me by Patrick Taylor,
CEO of Oversight Systems and a thought leader on CM. The CFO of
one of Oversight’s clients, a $6 Billion technology company with
global operations, was concerned about how he could ensure better
controls overmanual journal entries. He noticed an enormous area
of risk and large expenditures for manual testing.
When financial departments close the books, they book adjust-
ments to various estimates, based on analysis, to account for non-
systemic, often judgmental, reserves for such things as legal settle-
There has been ongoing concern that some regulations, rules, and government policies place a disproportionate burden on small businesses and entrepreneurs. For this reason, small businesses often receive special regulatory treatment, such as exemptions from legislation or extended deadlines for
–Function Blocks, Functions, Data Types, Programs
–Ladder Diagram (LD) for logic control (“power flow”)
–Function Block Diagram (FBD) for regulatory control (“data flow”)
–Sequential Function Chart (SFC) for state-machine control
–Structured Text (ST) for information processing
–Instruction List (IL) for assembly-level programming
•A Mature, Internationally Adopted Standard
–First edition: 1993
–Second edition: 2001...