The most important function of lubricants is the reduction of friction and wear and
in some cases, the relative movement of two bearing surfaces is only possible if a
lubricant is present. In times when saving energy and resources and cutting emission
have become central environmental matters, lubricants are increasingly attracting
public awareness. Scientific research has shown that 0.4% of gross domestic
product could be saved in terms of energy in Western industrialized countries if
current tribological knowledge, i.e.
The petrochemical industry is an important constituent in our pursuit of economic growth, employment generation and basic needs. It is a huge field that encompasses many commercial chemicals and polymers. This book is designed to help the reader, particularly students and researchers of petroleum science and engineering, understand the mechanics and techniques.
Lubricants are segmented into Automotive, Industrial, Marines & Specialties (60% volume for global Automotive Lubricants). Products are blended to qualities established by SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) and OEMs (Original Equipment Manufactures).
● Adsorption chromatography
• The stationary phase is an adsorbent (like silica gel or any other
• The separation is based on repeated adsorption-desorption
● Normal-phase chromatography
• The stationary bed is strongly polar in nature (e.g., silica gel),
and the mobile phase is nonpolar (such as n-hexane or
• Polar samples are retained on the polar surface of the column
packing longer than less polar materials.
Petroleum-based industrial products have gradually replaced products derived from biological materials. However, biologically based products are making a comeback--because of a threefold increase in farm productivity and new technologies.
Biobased Industrial Products envisions a biobased industrial future, where starch will be used to make biopolymers and vegetable oils will become a routine component in lubricants and detergents.
VACUUM DISTILLATION TOWER
In order to further distill the residuum from the atmospheric tower at higher temperatures, reduced pressure is required to prevent thermal cracking. The process takes place in one vacuum distillation tower. The principles of vacuum distillation resemble those of fractional distillation and, except that larger-diameter columns are used to maintain comparable vapor velocities at the reduced pressures, the equipment is also similar.
Barrier methods are not yet out of fashion! In spite of well-known disadvantages, they all (notably condoms) provide useful protection against STIs. All users of this type of method should be informed about EC, in case of lack of use or failure in use. Vegetable- and oil-based lubricants, and the bases for many prescribable vaginal products, can seriously damage and lead to rupture of rubber: baby oil destroys up to 95% of a condom’s strength within 15 minutes.