Since the dawn of history, human activities have always been closely related to friction,
the resistance to sliding. It is thanks to friction that one can stand and walk on
the ground, one can wear clothes, one can make fire by rubbing two sticks together,
or one can even start and stop a car. In these cases friction is very useful for human
beings. In many other cases, however, human activities have been very much hampered
by friction since ancient times. How to diminish friction is one of the most
basic technological problems.
For example, when a heavy...
Several years ago, the idea arose to write a general book on tribology. Students often
requested a suitable book for the study of tribology and there were problems in
recommending any one text-book. Existing text-books were either too specialized or too
literal. Many books provided exhaustive reviews of friction and wear data while others
provided detailed description of the lubrication and wear problems occurring in machinery.
A book which explains the concepts of tribology in terms useful to engineering students and
engineers was, however, lacking....
The tribology term comes from the Greeks of the words ‘’ tribos’’ meaning ‘’ friction ‘’,
and ‘’logos’’ meaning ‘’ law ‘’. Therefore Tribology is defi ned as “ a science which studies
surfaces moving one compared to the other “ and also a fi eld of science studying
lubrication, friction, and wear.
An automobile was seen as a simple accessory of luxury in the early years of the past
century. Therefore, it was an expensive asset which none of the common citizen could
afford. It was necessary to pass a long period and waiting for Henry Ford to establish
the first plants with the series fabrication. This new industrial paradigm makes easy to
the common American to acquire an automobile, either for running away or for
In the past decades, significant advances in tribology have been made as engineers
strive to develop more reliable and high performance products. The advancements are
mainly driven by the evolution of computational techniques and experimental
characterization that leads to a thorough understanding of tribological process on both
macro- and microscales.
The Andehydration is an important process in offshore gas processing. The gas is dehydrated offshore to avoid dangers associated with pipeline transport and prossing of wet gas. The problems include corrosion, water condensation and plugs created by ice or gas hydrates.
In a January 2000 speech at the California Institute of
Technology, former PresidentW. J. Clinton talked about
the exciting promise of “nanotechnology” and the importance
of expanding research in nanoscale science
and engineering and in the physical sciences, more
broadly. Later that month, he announced in his State of
the Union Address an ambitious $ 497 million federal,
multi-agency national nanotechnology initiative (NNI)
in the fiscal year 2001 budget; and he made the NNI
a top science and technology priority within a budget that
emphasized increased investment in U.S.
Requires improvements in the whole column:
– Sub 2 μm particles
Porous for optimum mass transfer
New bridged hybrid particle required for pressure
tolerance (up to 15000 psi)
Sizing technology for narrow particle size
– Column hardware
New frit technology to retain particles
New end fittings for high pressure/low dispersion
– Packing technology
New column packing processes to optimize stability
Rolling bearings are machine elements found in a wide field
of applications. They are reliable even under the toughest conditions
and premature failure is very rare.
The first sign of rolling bearing damage is primarily unusual
operating behaviour of the bearings. The examination of
damaged bearings reveals a wide and varied range of phenomena.
Inspection of the bearings alone is normally not enough to
pinpoint the cause of damage, but rather the inspection of the
mating parts, lubrication, and sealing as well as the operating
and environmental conditions.
Lubricants are segmented into Automotive, Industrial, Marines & Specialties (60% volume for global Automotive Lubricants). Products are blended to qualities established by SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) and OEMs (Original Equipment Manufactures).