Lymphoid system

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 105. Malignancies of Lymphoid Cells Malignancies of Lymphoid Cells: Introduction Malignancies of lymphoid cells range from the most indolent to the most aggressive human malignancies. These cancers arise from cells of the immune system at different stages of differentiation, resulting in a wide range of morphologic, immunologic, and clinical findings. Insights on the normal immune system have allowed a better understanding of these sometimes confusing disorders. Some malignancies of lymphoid cells almost always present as leukemia (i.e.

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  • Patients with follicular lymphoma have a high rate of histologic transformation to diffuse large B cell lymphoma (5–7% per year). This is recognized ~40% of the time during the course of the illness by repeat biopsy and is present in almost all patients at autopsy. This transformation is usually heralded by rapid growth of lymph nodes—often localized—and the development of systemic symptoms such as fevers, sweats, and weight loss.

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  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas were separated from Hodgkin's disease by recognition of the Sternberg-Reed cells early in the twentieth century. The histologic classification for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas has been one of the most contentious issues in oncology. Imperfect morphologic systems were supplanted by imperfect immunologic systems, and poor reproducibility of diagnosis has hampered progress.

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  • Table 105-5 Diseases or Exposures Associated with Increased Risk of Development of Malignant Lymphoma Inherited immunodeficiency disease Klinefelter's syndrome Chédiak-Higashi syndrome Ataxia telangiectasia syndrome Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome Common variable immunodeficiency disease Acquired immunodeficiency diseases Iatrogenic immunosuppression HIV-1 infection Acquired hypogammaglobulinemia Autoimmune disease Sjögren's syndrome Celiac sprue Rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus Chemical or drug exposures Phenytoin Dioxin, phenoxyherbicides Radiation P...

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  • Rare patients with localized early stage mycosis fungoides can be cured with radiotherapy, often total-skin electron beam irradiation. More advanced disease has been treated with topical glucocorticoids, topical nitrogen mustard, phototherapy, psoralen with ultraviolet A (PUVA), electron beam radiation, interferon, antibodies, fusion toxins, and systemic cytotoxic therapy. Unfortunately, these treatments are palliative. Adult T Cell Lymphoma/Leukemia Adult T cell lymphoma/leukemia is one manifestation of infection by the HTLV-I retrovirus.

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  • In this 3rd edition of Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology: PreTest Self-Assessment and Review, a significant number of changes and improvements have been made. This PreTest reviews all of the anatomical disciplines encompassing early embryology, cell biology, histology of the tissues and organs, as well as regional human anatomy of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, extremities, and spine. This edition represents a comprehensive effort to integrate the anatomical disciplines with clinical scenarios and cases.

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  • Malignancies of lymphoid cells range from the most indolent to the most aggressive human malignancies. These cancers arise from cells of the immune system at different stages of differentiation, resulting in a wide range of morphologic, immunologic, and clinical findings. Insights on the normal immune system have allowed a better understanding of these sometimes confusing disorders. Some malignancies of lymphoid cells almost always present as leukemia (i.e., primary involvement of bone marrow and blood), while others almost always present as lymphomas (i.e.

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  • The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) plays dual roles in hwnan physiology: digestion and uptake of nutrients and the more daunting task of maintaining immune homeostasis (protecting the body from potentially harmful microbes, while inducing tolerogenic responses to innocuous food, commensals and self-antigens). The unique architecture ofthe GI tract facilitates both ofthese functions; multiple levelsofinfolding results in an immense overall surface area that allows maximal nutrient absorption while housing the largest nwnber ofimmune cells in the body.

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  • Leukocytes constantly patrol the vascular system in order to react promptly to infections when and where it is necessary. To fulfil this task, the cells have to enter secondary lymphoid organs and to emigrate into inflamed tissues, which requires them to cross the bar-rier of endothelial cells that line blood vessels.

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  • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are fatal neuro-degenerative diseases of humans and animals. The underlying infectious agent, the prion, accumulates not only in the central ner-vous system (CNS) but also in secondary lymphoid organs. I will revisit the role of the immune system in peripheral prion pathogen-esis, while focusing on the mechanisms by which extraneural and extralymphatic prion infectivity develops.

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