Macroeconomic factors

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  • Over the same period of time, the population in the largest towns have been growing at the expense of rural municipalities. The Norwegian housing market was deregulated through the 1980 s and thus has become more sensi- tive to development in macroeconomic factors like inte- rest rates and unemployment. This was a clear experi- ence during the late 1980s and through the 1990s when the economy first boomed with rising building costs and house prices, then almost collapsed with a rapid increase in real interest rates and an unemployment rate higher than for more than fifty years.

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  • This book was written to complete the curriculum requirement of the Master’s of Macroeconomics degree. Macroeconomics is a very practical subject and can be very useful for policy making. Domestic and international economies are subjected to variations in savings, income, exchange rates, as well as interest rates and the balance of payments. This book attempts to explain the domestic and international factors responsible for creating the equilibrium of the balance of payments, interest rates and inflation....

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  • Principles of Macroeconomics: Chapter 12 - Production and Growth presents Economic growth around the world, productivity’s role, the factors that determine a country’s productivity, economic growth and public policy.

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  • Chapter 3 - Individual markets: Demand and supply. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: What markets are, what demand is and what factors affect it, what supply is and what factors affect it, how demand and supply together determine market equilibrium.

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  • Chapter 8 - Building the aggregate expenditure model. In this chapter you will learn: The factors that determine consumption expenditure and saving, the factors that determine investment spending, how equilibrium GDP is determined in a closed economy without a government sector, about the effects of the multiplier on changes in equilibrium GDP,…

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  • Chapter 9 - Aggregate demand and aggregate supply. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Why the aggregate demand curve is downward sloping, and what factors shift the entire curve; what determines the shape of the short run aggregate supply curve, and what factors shift the entire curve; how the equilibrium price level and real GDP are determined; the distinction between the short-run and long-run supply curve; the nature and causes of recessionary and inflationary gaps.

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  • Notes to the students: The concept of “Marginal Physical Product – MPP” in this problem set is exactly the same that of “Marginal Productivity – MP” in the lecture Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following are factors of production? A. Output in a production function B. Productivity C. Land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship D. Implicit and explicit costs

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  • Business models have become the primary tools for the financial analysis of nearly all major business decisions. However, the structure and design of most models have evolved without reference to an effective business-modelling methodology. In writing this book we hope to provide the terms of reference for best-practice business modelling.

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  • The other group of articles is rather empirical in nature and estimate a long-run relationship between the aggregated value of credit and a set of standard macroeconomic factors such as output, prices or interest rates. The main ¯nding of these studies is that for most countries the value of credit tend to increase with GDP and asset prices, and to decrease with the level of interest rates (see Egert et al., 2007 and references therein).

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  • Employing this methodology, there has been a growing literature showing strong influence of macroeconomic variables and stock markets, mostly for industrialized countries (see, for example, Hondroyiannis and Papapetrou, 2001; Muradoglu et al. 2001; Fifield et al. 2000; Lovatt and Ashok 2000; and Nasseh and Strauss 2000). Additionally, researchers have begun to turn their attention to examining similar relationships in developing countries, particularly those in the growth engines of Asia (for example, Maysami and Sims 2002, Maysami and Koh 2000).

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  • Our aim is to contribute to the above literature by proposing a life-cycle model with individual income uncertainty that can be used to assess how various macroeconomic factors a®ect the equilibrium value of household credit. We show that its value de- pends on (i) the lending-deposit interest rate spread, (ii) individual income uncertainty, (iii) individual productivity persistence, and (iv) the generosity of the pension system.

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  • This monograph is about managing our financial wealth in the context of having both human and financial capital. The portfolio that works best tends to hold stocks and bonds as well as insurance products. We are attempting to put these decisions together in a single framework. Thus, we are trying to provide a theoretical foundation—a framework—and practical solutions for developing investment advice for individual investors throughout their lives.

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  • Did you already obtain an academic degree in a non-economic discipline and would you like to broaden your horizon by getting knowledge of economics and management? Then the Master of International Business Economics and Management will be something for you. This one year master programme offers you thorough insight into the most important aspects of economics and management. It has a strong international focus and blends academic knowledge with the development of practical skills sought by employers worldwide....

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  • Economic policy makers, macroprudential supervisors or investors are interested in reli- able estimates of the equilibrium level of credit in the economy. While earlier theoretical and empirical studies concentrated mostly on the aggregate level of credit to the pri- vate sector or the value of corporate credit, more recent studies focus on the problem of credit to households.

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  • Inverse floating-rate securities are a special kind of floater. Their coupon rates increase when general market rates decrease. For example, the coupon may be 8 percent minus the three-month LIBOR. These securities often appeal to investors when the yield curve is very steep, as the coupon formula will give a coupon rate often well above short term financing costs. However, an increase in LIBOR can cause the interest rate on this type of security to drop very low and possibly to zero. If the security has a long maturity, it can lose significant...

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  • Islam and Watanapalachaikul (2003) showed a strong, significant long-run relationship between stock prices and macroeconomic factors (interest rate, bonds price, foreign exchange rate, price-earning ratio, market capitalization, and consumer price index) during 1992-2001 in Thailand. Hassan (2003) employed Johansen’s (1988, 1991, 1992b) and Johansen and Juselius’ (1990) multivariate cointegration techniques to test for the existence of long-term relationships between share prices in the Persian Gulf region.

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  • The results are shown for 12 major economies, with a common scale across panels to ease comparison. What is striking is the different picture it presents of macroeconomic performance during the crisis compared with Figure 1, which plots absolute real GDP growth. There was wide variation in both the timing and severity of the crisis across different economies. The North American economies, together with Japan, were the poorest performers early on, as seen by their negative deviations from the global trend during 2006–07.

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  • Chapter 27 - Basic macroeconomic relationships. The goal is for you to learn: Describe how changes in income affect consumption (and saving), list and explain factors other than income that can affect consumption, explain how changes in real interest rates affect investment, identify and explain factors other than the real interest rate that can affect investment, illustrate how changes in investment increase or decrease real GDP by a multiple amount.

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  • Technological change is today central to the theory of economic growth (Teixeira and Fortuna, 2010). It is recognized as an important driver of productivity growth and the emergence of new products from which consumers derive welfare (Verspagen, 2010).

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