Macronutrient changes

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  • Food can be defined as the nutritive material taken into an organism for growth, work, or repair and for maintaining the vital processes. Food sustains life, and, as such, many individuals view food as an uncomplicated, pure source of nutrition. Therefore, such individuals are often bewildered to learn that food is comprised of an array of natural chemicals, and not all the chemicals are nutrients or enhance nutritive value, but in fact may decrease nutritional value or, worse still, are toxic (e.g., naturally occurring toxicants).

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  • In a layer system, a typical laying hen will consume feed which contains 1.1 kg N while producing approximately 250 eggs . In a broiler system, a typical broiler year (6.7 birds sent 18 to market per year) will also consume 1.1 kg N per year of which 0.6 kg N is excreted and 0.5 kg N are assimilated into body tissues . 18 The macronutrient and micronutrient (see appendix III) values provided strongly indicate that poultry manure is very rich in terms of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as well as some other elements.

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  • The residence time that contaminants and nutrients remain in lichen tissue differs among elements (Pucket 1985). Macronutrients, such as nitrogen, sulfur, potassium, magnesium and calcium are comparatively mobile and easily leached and therefore measurable changes in tissue concentrations can occur over weeks or months with seasonal changes in deposition (Boongaprob et al. 1989). In one study, mobile elements reached the same levels in transplants as the indigenous lichens within four to six months (Palomäki et al. 1992).

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