Fracture mechanics is the field of mechanics concerned with the study of the propagation of cracks in materials. It uses methods of analytical solid mechanics to calculate the driving force on a crack and those of experimental solid mechanics to characterize the material's resistance to fracture.In modern materials science, fracture mechanics is an important tool in improving the mechanical performance of materials and components.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Liver metastasis originating from colorectal cancer with macroscopic portal vein tumor thrombosis: a case report and review of the literature
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Fragmentation of decorin, biglycan, lumican and keratocan is elevated in degenerate human meniscus, knee and hip articular cartilages compared with age-matched macroscopically normal and control tissues...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp đề tài:"Predicting of oak wood properties using X-ray inspection: representation, homogenisation and localisation. Part II: Computation of macroscopic properties and microscopic stress fields"
Over the past several decades, the increases in acquisition costs for U.S. Navy amphibious ships, surface combatants, attack submarines, and nuclear aircraft carriers have outpaced the rate of inflation. To understand why, the authors of this book examined two principal source categories of ship cost escalation: economy-driven
This report explores why, in recent decades, military fixed-wing aircraft costs have escalated beyond the rates of commonly used inflation indices, examining both economy-driven factors that the Services cannot control and customer-driven ones that they can. The authors found that this trend of cost increases is true for all types of aircraft
Giải phẫu học người (human anatomy) là môn khoa học nghiên cứu cấu trúc cơ thể con người. Tuỳ thuộc vào phương tiện quan sát, giải phẫu học được chia ra thành 2 phân môn: giải phẫu đại thể (gross anatomy hay macroscopic anatomy) nghiên cứu các cấu trúc có thể quan sát bằng mắt thường; giải phẫu vi thể (microscopic anatomy hay histology) nghiên cứu các cấu trúc nhỏ chỉ có thể quan sát dưới kính hiển vi.
Tools shape how we think; when the only tool you have is an axe, everything resembles a
tree or a log. The rapid advances in instrumentation in the last decade, which allow us to
measure and manipulate individual molecules and structures on the nanoscale, have caused
a paradigm shift in the way we view molecular behavior and surfaces. The microscopic details
underlying interfacial phenomena have customarily been inferred from in situ measurements
of macroscopic quantities. Now we can see and “finger” physical and chemical
processes at interfaces.
Investigation of the magnetic properties of materials is very important,
because magnetic phenomena have various scientific and technical
The macroscopic properties of matter are a manifestation of the
microscopic properties of the atoms of which it is composed.
The magnetic properties of materials may be very different for types of
material, depending on their nature and structure.
Various mesoscopic systems have their own unique characteristics, some of
which are of importance due to bridging function over classical and quantum
mechanics. It is quite natural that human beings living in macroscopic world
could hardly grasp the phenomena occurring in the microscopic world in an
intuitive manner. This situation offers a vital sense in the "observation" problem
necessarily accompanied with the classical means. The fundamental core of the
argument between Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen and Bohr starting in 1935 actually
lies in this point.
Progress of thermodynamics has been stimulated by the fi ndings of a variety of fi elds
of science and technology. In the nineteenth century, studies on engineering problems,
effi ciency of thermal machines, lead to the discovery of the second law of thermodynamics.
Following development of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics
allowed us to understand thermodynamics on the basis of the properties of constituent
Nanoscale physics, nowadays one of the most topical research subjects, has
two major areas of focus. One is the important field of potential applications
bearing the promise of a great variety of materials having specific properties
that are desirable in daily life. Even more fascinating to the researcher in
physics are the fundamental aspects where quantum mechanics is seen at work;
most macroscopic phenomena of nanoscale physics can only be understood and
described using quantum mechanics. The emphasis of the present volume is
on this latter aspect....
It is our everyday experience that materials in the solid, liquid, and gas phases
are equally present in the world around us.1 Nevertheless it is the physics
of solids that has acquired a privileged status in the vast field of research
into the physical properties of macroscopic bodies. The reason for this is
that while investigating liquids and real gases, let alone materials in so-called
mesomorphic phases can yield a lot of new and interesting results, it is the
processes taking place in solids that have, in the first place, led to a great
many fundamentally new concepts.
In 1864, James Clerk Maxwell proposed one of the most successful theories in the history of science. In a famous memoir to the Royal Society  he presented nine equations summarizing all known laws on electricity and magnetism. This was more than a mere cataloging of the laws of nature. By postulating the need for an additional term to make the set of equations self-consistent, Maxwell was able to put forth what is still considered a complete theory of macroscopic electromagnetism.
Over the past decade, there has been a vast explosion in new information
relating to the art and science of dermatology as well as fundamental cutaneous
biology. Furthermore, this information is no longer of interest only to
the small but growing specialty of dermatology. Scientists from a wide variety
of disciplines have come to recognize both the importance of skin in fundamental
biological processes and the broad implications of understanding
the pathogenesis of skin disease. As a result, there is now a multidisciplinary
and worldwide interest in the progress of dermatology....
René Descartes gives few philosophical arguments to directly support
his rejection of forms in favor of mechanisms . Moreover, the scattered
reasons he offers in his corpus are cryptic and hard to unpack. Hence I
will draw on Descartes’ intellectual context to reconstruct his reasoning
and shed light on his historic elimination of Scholastic Aristotelian
substantial forms from the physical world.
The committee was tasked to determine the best instrumentation and
procedures for measuring BFD (see Box S-1). To do this, it reviewed technical
specifications, viewed demonstrations of the operation and use of current and
prospective systems, and evaluated factors such as human handling variability,
process transparency, and software variability judgment.
The committee found that given the current clay variation, a measurement
precision (standard deviation) of 0.5 mm is sufficient; instruments featuring
greater precision add little practical value to the testing process.
The increasing demand on ultra miniturized electronic devices for ever improving
performances has led to the necessity of a deep and detailed understanding
of the mathematical theory of charge transport in semiconductors.