Ever since their discovery adenoviruses have proven to be a
tremendous asset to biologists. Through the study of the adenoviruses,
we have learned not only about the virus structures, mechanisms of viral
replication, but also about eukaryotic gene expression, alternative splicing,
regulation of cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. In the last five years,
there has been an explosion in the use of adenoviruses as vectors for gene
transfer to a variety of mammalian cells.
The role of emotions
HRI is also an important research area so that human and robot can follow
stand each other's emotional expression. Development of appropriate control architecture
facilitate flexible human-machine communication and cooperation cooperation is essential for
HRI. A control architecture proposed basis for the interaction and coat drive
a sensor research and development, the communication modes and protocols, and
system development. In addition, a majority of HRI research related to the application
and learn lessons from the man-machine applications....
Background: To be useful for genetic display of foreign peptides a viral coat protein must tolerate peptide insertions without major disruption of subunit folding and capsid assembly. The folding of the coat protein of RNA phage MS2 does not normally tolerate insertions in its AB-loop, but an engineered single-chain dimer readily accepts them as long as they are restricted to one of its two halves.
Tubular organs are essential for organisms to establish transport systems for nutrients,
liquids and gases. The development of tubes requires endocytosis of bound ligands,
receptors and proteins at the plasma membrane (Bonifacino and Traub, 2003; Nelson, 2009).
Clathrin coated vesicles (CCVs) organize major routes of cargo selective endocytosis in
higher eukaryotic cells (Conner and Schmid, 2003). The formation of CCVs requires clathrin
molecules. During CCV budding, clathrin molecules assemble to form a cage-like coat
around the nascent vesicle membrane.