Major volatile

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  • In order to establish the preferred shopping places for food, consumers were asked to indicate what shop they traditionally buy their groceries from. Six places were identified from past research as: supermarket, spaza shops (which are common in rural areas), Grocery stores, Farmers markets such as the Kei Fresh produce in Mthatha or the farmers market in Wilsonia, East London, Street vendors or the farm gate. Respondents’ were free to mark all the choices. An overwhelming majority of the respondents, 96% in the Transkei and 89.

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  • Essential oils (also called volatile oils) generally extracted by distillation from plants are hydrophobic liquids containing volatile aromatic compounds. The essential oils are widely used in perfumes, cosmetics as well as in food and drink as flavor additives. Some essential oils show multiple pharmacological activities and have been considered as the major active fractions of herbal medicines [1–3].

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  • Histones are nuclear proteins that package and order the DNA into nucleosomes [1]. Five major families of histones exist: H1 (H5), H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Two copies of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 form the octameric nucleosome core particles [2]. Unlike the other histones, only one copy of the linker histone H1 is present and stabilizes the DNA, which is wrapped around the core nucleosome [3]. Linker histones bind to both the nucleosome and the linker DNA region (approximately 20 to 80 nucleotides in length) between nucleosomes.

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  • Periodontitis is one of the most common oral diseases and is characterised by gingival inflammation and alveolar bone resorption (Savage et al. 2009). Periodontitis is a multifactorial irreversible and cumulative condition, initiated and propagated by bacteria and host factors (Kinane 2001). More than 500 different bacterial species are able to colonise the oral biofilm and up to 150 different species of bacteria are possible in any individual’s subgingival plaque.

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  • Once an obscure subfield of finance, Market Microstructure has emerged as a major stream of finance. In its narrowest sense, microstructure might be defined as the study of the level and the source of transactions costs associated with trading. It examines the organizational structure of exchanges and how the specific market structure enhances the efficiency, transparency and information dissemination of security trading.

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  • The pH values will bring effects in flora and fauna nearby, change the taste of water and lead to heavy corrosion in pipe lines. High conductivity naturally indicates the presence of ionic substances dissolved in the river water. However, the result showed that 90% of the study site exceeded the data reported for non-contaminated rivers due to excessive metal ions within the water. At the site nearer to kaolin industry the conductivity is 852 times higher than the non-polluted study site. The industrial discharge also changed the hardness in river water.

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  • Food purchasing is an important expression of food habits. This paper therefore examines the factors associated with a household’s decision to purchase organic food products because such information is not yet available for the study area despite anecdotal evidence of the growing importance of organic products in the country. A randomly chosen sample of 200 consumers in rural and urban areas of the province’s two major regions, the former Ciskei and Transkei homeland areas, were enumerated.

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  • Coastal wetlands throughout the Great Lakes has been recognized as important areas for fish production. These wetlands contribute large numbers of prey species, sport and commercial Large lake fisheries (Herdendorf et al 1986; Herdendorf 1987). Estimates vary on the number of species use the coastal wetlands in the Great Lakes. Whillans (1987) estimated that over 90% about 200 species of fish in the Great Lakes are dependent on wetlands for at least some part of their life cycle while Jude and Pappas (1992) found 47 species closely related to coastal wetlands....

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  • Given the considerable variation in deposit insurance arrangements and the relatively large number of banking crises, it is possible to use this panel to test whether the nature of the deposit insurance system has a significant impact on the probability of a banking crisis once other factors are controlled for. We carry out these tests using the multivariate logit econometric model developed in our previous work on the determinants of banking crises (Demirg†e-Kunt and Detragiache, 1998).

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  • One of the reasons private crop insurance markets have not developed is the relatively low demand for crop insurance. Despite large subsidies in the United States, crop insurance participation historically has been relatively low. Farmers and ranchers use a variety of risk management strategies to mitigate the risks they face (Harwood, Heifner, Coble, Perry, and Somwaru, 1999; U.S. GAO, 1999), many of which compete with crop insurance. These include futures and options markets, contracting, cultural practices that reduce crop loss (e.g.

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  • Indian culture promotes universal marriage. Of importance to ARH is the traditional young marriage age of girls—referred to as early marriage. The national average age at marriage for women in India is 16.4 years, although there are vast regional variations. Most northern and north-eastern states, as well as Tamil Nadu and Kerala in the south and Goa in the west, have a higher age at marriage, ranging from ages 18–22. The majority of the states in the western, central, and eastern parts of India reported an average age at marriage similar to...

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  • During the Uruguay Round trade negotiations, the United States and several of its major trading partners agreed to eliminate tariffs on pharmaceutical products, certain derivatives, and certain chemical intermediates used in the production of pharmaceuticals. 1 This agreement is known as the Pharmaceutical Zero-for-Zero Initiative (Initiative or Pharmaceutical Agreement).

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  • While it has been demonstrated that these materials have good sensitivity to polar VOCs, such as alcohols and acetone, 11,12 their rather poor response to nonpolar analytes has been viewed as a major drawback. In this report, we explored two ways to improve the sensor performance of regioregular polythiophene. The first approach is to add a second polymer at the end of the polythiophene chain to form a block copolymer. This second polymer interacts with the analytes in different ways, thus adding another dimensionality to the sensing response of the material.

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  • Given that the pool of underutilized labour is large in almost all developing countries (either in the form of open unemployment or in the form of hidden unemployment in both the agricultural and the informal sector), this then leads to an increase in employment in the modern sector which in turn leads to more incomes and savings. The expansion of the production of the modern sector moreover brings about the penetration of modern technology into the economy and hence an increase in productivity and goods supply, also adding to higher incomes.

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  • Environmental accounting is a term with a variety of meanings. In many contexts, environmental accounting is taken to mean the identification and reporting of environment- specific costs, such as liability costs or waste disposal costs. For the purposes of this analysis, a much more general definition is used. "Environmental accounting" is more than accounting for environmental benefits and costs. It is accounting for any costs and benefits that arise from changes to a firm's products or processes, where the change also involves a change in environmental impacts.

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  • My examples satisfy some aspects of this requirement, but not others. In each of the examples, there clearly are relations, however simple, between doing and undergoing. I undergo an experience, such as feeling that my hands are cold, and take action in response, warming my hands by caressing the sides of my mug. I adjust what I am doing in response to sensations that indicate the mug is too hot to grasp for any extended period; and I put the mug down once my sensations suggest that my hands have been sufficiently warmed. This...

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  • This review of the environmental effects of freight is structured by transport mode, addressing shipping, air cargo, trucking, rail, pipelines and intermodal terminals. It begins with a brief overview of the major environmental media or mechanisms through which transport can affect the environment. These include air pollution, global climate concerns, noise, water pollution, accidents, land use and habitat fragmentation.

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  • The $200 million AUM fund described earlier could therefore base its annual revenue projections around its $3 million management fee (i.e., 1.5% of AUM) and set its expense caps accordingly. Dur- ing a strong-performing year the fund will run with a surplus which, like other businesses, it can use for capital expenditures, incentive bonuses, cash reserves and so forth. A start-up fund can apply the same principal based on realistic AUM assumptions. (For most funds, “re- alistic” start-up capital consists of investments by partners, friends and family.

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  • A midwife’s focus is to enable all women and their families to have a positive and safe experience of pregnancy, birth and early parenting. A social model of maternity care where women, rather than the organisation, are at the centre is a key feature of midwifery-led care20. Women value care that is personalised and coordinated by a midwife they know and trust and should be offered a choice of place of birth taking account of individual needs, risks and circumstances. One-to-one support in established labour results in better outcomes for women and this is a key role of the midwife.

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  • On the other hand a model with dynamically inconsistent (quasi-hyperbolic) time preference can explain the decline, for reasonable short-term and long-term discount rates. We also investigate whether households in our sample appear to make an effort at self-control, using a strategy emphasized in the literature: a mental accounting rule that limits borrowing during the pay period and thus puts a cap on overspending. We find that households who are able to borrow, in the sense that they own a credit card, nevertheless exhibit the spending profile characteristic of credit constraints.

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