A novel vector platform for vitamin H-inducible transgene expression in mammalian cells have therefore designed a strategy to convert antibiotic-responsive transcription factors into gene regulation systems responsive to non-toxic biotin, also known as vitamin H.
Odorant binding proteins (OBP) are soluble lipocalins produced in large
amounts in the nasal mucosa of several mammalian species. Although
OBPs can bind a large variety of odorous compounds, direct and exclusive
involvement of these proteins in olfactory perception has not been clearly
Representing one of the most important lifestyle factors, diet can strongly influence
the incidence and onset of cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders.
Recent dietary intervention studies in several mammalian species, including humans,
with flavonoid-rich foods, in particular Vitis vinifera (grape), Camellia sinensis (tea),
Theobroma cacao (cocoa), and Vaccinium spp. (blueberry), have indicated an ability
of these dietary components to improve memory and learning.
Cerium, an element in the lanthanide series, has a number of
radioactive isotopes. Several of these are produced in abundance in
nuclear fission reactions associated with nuclear industry operations
or detonation of nuclear devices. This report summarizes our present
knowledge of the relevant physical, chemical, and biological properties
of radiocerium as a basis for establishing radiation protection guidelines.
Low molecular mass proteins are implicated in chemical
communication throughout mammalian species, being
involved in both perception and delivery of pheromonal
compounds. In boars, pheromones are secreted in saliva to
cause oestrous sows to take up the mating stance. These
pheromones are the 16-androstene steroids, 5a-androsten-3a-ol and 5a-androsten-3-one. The submaxillary glands of
boars contain a low molecular mass protein, pheromaxein,
which is capable of binding these 16-androstene phero-mones. ...
Retinoic acid and its relatives, natural products of vitamin A metabolism,
have been discovered to be critical ligands for key receptors of the steroid
receptor superfamily, such as the retinoic acid receptor and the RXR receptor.
Vitamins and Hormones has not had a review of this important fatsoluble
vitamin for some time, and it seemed important not only to touch on
the modern aspects of the retinoic acid receptor and its relatives but also of
the roles of vitamin A in development and diVerentiation as well as its
activity in certain tissues and in disease states....
Reactive oxygen species are generated by various biological systems,
including NADPH oxidases, xanthine oxidoreductase, and mitochondrial
respiratory enzymes, and contribute to many physiological and pathologi-cal phenomena.
It is widely recognized that proper gonadal function depends on the coordinated
action of multiple factors influencing the synthesis and secretion of gonadotropin
hormones. The term gonadotropin derives from the combination of gonas (from Greek
gonos or “seed”) and tropin (from Greek trepein or “to change”). Thus, gonadotropins
are protein hormones that have the ability to change gonadal function. Although the
word gonadotrophin is also used in scientific literature, the etymological derivation of
this alternative spelling is different.
Transgenic Mice as Models of Genetic Disease
Several organisms have been studied extensively as genetic models, including Mus musculus (mouse), Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast), and Escherichia coli (colonic bacterium). The ability to use these evolutionarily distant organisms as genetic models that are relevant to human physiology reflects a surprising conservation of genetic pathways and gene function.
The C-terminal catalytic domains of the 11 mammalian phosphodiesterase
families (PDEs) are important drug targets. Five of the 11 PDE families
contain less well-characterized N-terminal GAF domains. cGMP is the lig-and for the GAF domains in PDEs 2, 5, 6 and 11, and cAMP is the ligand
Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of newly
synthesized glycoproteins has been demonstrated previously
using various mammalian cell lines. Depending on the cell
type, glycoproteins bearingMan9 glycans and glycoproteins
bearing Man5 glycans can be efficiently degraded. Awide
variety of variables can lead to defective synthesis of lipid-linked oligosaccharides and, therefore, in mammalian cells,
species derived fromMan9GlcNAc2 orMan5GlcNAc2 are
often recovered on newly synthesized glycoproteins. ...
Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are widely distributed in plants, microorganisms and
mammalian species; they are known to play pivotal roles in regulating proteinase activities in these
species. Accordingly, PIs are important molecular tools for many research disciplines. Studies of
the correlation of PI structures and functions have lead to understanding of their inhibitory actions
against physiological important proteases. There are potential therapeutic applications for such
studies for diseases relating to excessive activities of proteases.
The cave of Tham Khuyen in Lang Son
Province, northeastern Vietnam, has yielded
a large mammalian fauna of probable late
middle Pleistocene date. A series of isolated
hominoid primate teeth, formerly allocated
to the extant orangutan Pongo pygmaeus, has
recently been reexamined and found to represent
more than one species. These specimens
are described in detail in this paper and
are analyzed as follows. Some ofthe teeth are
indeed clearly identifiable as those of Pongo
pygmaeus, but the majority appear to belong
to a species related to the orangutan but not
identical with it....
Parvalbumin (PV), a small cytosolic protein belonging to the family of
EF-hand calcium-binding proteins, is highly expressed in mammalian
fast-twitch muscle fibers. By acting as a ‘slow-onset’ Ca
buffer, PV does
not affect the rapid contraction phase, but significantly contributes to
increase the rate of relaxation, as demonstrated in PV–⁄– mice.
With the aim of extending our knowledge on the reaction
pathways of Zn-metallothionein (MT) and apo-MT species
in the presence of Hg(II), we monitored the titration of
-aMT and Zn3
-bMT proteins, at pH 7 and 3,
with either HgCl2or Hg(ClO4
by CD and UV-vis spectr-oscopy.
The ectopic expression of antibody fragments inside mammalian cells
(intrabodies) is a challenging approach for probing and modulating target
activities. We previously described the shuttling activity of intracellularly
expressedEscherichia colib-galactosidase conferred by the single-chain Fv
(scFv) fragment 13R4 equipped with nuclear import⁄export signals.
The cellular retinoic acid-binding protein type I (CRABPI) is encoded by a
single gene in mammals. We have characterized twocrabp1genes in zebra-fish, designatedcrabp1a and crabp1b. These twocrabp1 genes share the
same gene structure as the mammalianCRABP1genes and encode proteins
that show the highest amino acid sequence identity to mammalian CRAB-PIs. The zebrafishcrabp1aandcrabp1bwere assigned to linkage groups 25
and 7, respectively.
Termination of mitochondrial (mt) H-strand transcription
in mammalian cells occurs at two distinct sites on the
genome. The first site of termination, referred to as
mt-TERM occurs beyond the 16 S rRNA gene. However,
the second and final site of termination beyond the
gene remains unclear. In this study we have
characterized the site of termination of the polycistronic
distal gene transcript beyond the D-loop region, immedi-ately upstream of the tRNA