The Vest Pocket CFO is the perfect up-to-date reference tool for today's busy CFO, controller, treasurer, and other finance professionals. Written in an easy Q&A format and packed with checklists, samples, and worked-out solutions for a wide variety of accounting and finance problems, readers can take this handy reference wherever they go-on a business trip, visiting a client, conducting a conference call, or attending a meeting..
Most discussions of corporate financing policy focus on long-term
liabilities such as common stock, preferred stock, debentures,
loans, and leases. Yet trade credit—credit extended by a seller
who allows delayed payment for its products—represents a substantial component of both corporate liabilities and assets, especially in the
case of middle-market companies. For the 3,350 non-financial Nasdaq firms
covered by COMPUSTAT, accounts receivable amounted to 19% of corporate
assets, and accounts payable were 26% of corporate liabilities, at the end of 1992.
The current liabilities section of the balance sheet contains obligations that are due to be satisfied in
the near term, and includes amounts relating to accounts payable, salaries, utilities, taxes, short-term
loans, and so forth. This casual description is inadequate for all situations, so accountants have
developed a very specific definition to deal with more issues.
• Permanent Assets (those held 1 year)
– should be financed with permanent and
spontaneous sources of financing.
• Temporary Assets (those held
• Permanent Financing
– intermediate-term loans, long-term debt,
preferred stock, common stock
• Spontaneous Financing
– accounts payable that arise spontaneously
in day-to-day operations (trade credit,
wages payable, accrued interest and taxes)
• Short-term financing
– unsecured bank loans, commercial paper,
loans secured by A/R or inventory...
Sectoral differences in core business activities and risk exposures are well reflected in the
balance sheets typical of firms within each sector. In order to illustrate such differences,
stylised balance sheets for institutions from each sector are presented in Annex 2 of the
report for explanatory purposes. These stylised balance sheets suggest the following broad
The majority of a bank’s assets typically consist of loans and other credit exposures, while
the majority of liabilities consist of deposits payable on demand and other short-term