The main purpose of this study was to analyse what strategies small and medium businesses
actually adopt when confronted with a major crisis such as a fire, flood or similar
catastrophe, and determine what factors proved vital to the survival of the business.
Up until this study, the research in the area has been focused on large public companies.
This chapter discusses some of the components involved in understanding the project environment, such as using a systems approach, understanding organizations, managing stakeholders, matching product life cycles to the project environment, understanding the context of IT projects, and reviewing recent trends that affect IT project management.
Human Resources Management.
uman resources management is required to make the most efﬁcient use of the project human resources. This includes all of the people involved in the project—the stakeholders, sponsors, customers, other departments, the project team, subcontractors, and all others. Organizational planning involves the organizing of the human resources. These are the roles, responsibilities, and relationships of the people that are on the project team. As in all things in project management, human resources management takes place throughout the project.
What is marketing?
Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating,
communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer
relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders. The process
through which VALUE is exchanged.
One of the goals of project management is to meet the expectations of the stakeholders of the project. Managing the quality of the project is the function that will allow this to happen. Quality management will include all the work that is necessary to ensure that each of the objectives of the project is met. In the latest edition of the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, PMI emphasizes that the purpose of the project is to meet the requirements of the stakeholders. In the past, the project goal was to meet or exceed the customer’s...
Without a doubt, the most common reason that projects fail is because of poor scope deﬁnition. By that I mean that the expectations of the stakeholders, and especially the client or sponsor, are different than the expectations of the project team. This is a most difﬁcult problem, but it is critical to the success of the project that it is overcome. There are many reasons why a project fails, and understanding them will give us insights to how to avoid them. The relationship between the project team and the customer has to reverse itself at the time of...
Describe the software crisis and how the often dismal track record for information technology (IT) projects provides a motivation for changing how we view and manage IT projects.Explain the sociotechnical, project management and knowledge management approaches that support ITPM. Define what an IT project is and describe its attributes. Define the discipline called project management. Describe the role and impact IT projects have on an organization. Identify the different roles and interests of project stakeholders.
Chapter 14b: Answer key about HUMAN RESOURCES
1. Answer: b The major advantage of the functional organization over those listed is that the organization is quite stable. Project organizations are created and disbanded as the need for them arises. Functional organizations are also able to have high level of expertise in speciﬁc skill areas. These organizations also resist change. 2.
Chapter 11b: Answer key about SCOPE MANAGEMENT
1. Answer: b Scope deﬁnition is deﬁned by PMI as ‘‘decomposing the major deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to provide better control.’’ 2. Answer: a The chart of accounts is the system used to monitor project costs as deﬁned by PMI. 3. Answer: c A stakeholder is an individual or organization that is involved in or may be affected by project activities. 4. Answer: c The actual payback period is between two years and three years. It is the point where the net or cumulative cash ﬂows equal zero.
In our many years in the interactive industry, we’ve witnessed more than a few projects
become train wrecks. It’s happened in large and small advertising agencies, software
companies, and digital agencies alike. Most of these wrecks could have been avoided.
In nearly every case, the problem was that nothing held the team together, which led to
clashes between stakeholders. We’ve seen the client-side project manager who was rela-tively isolated try to manage the marketing and IT departments.
Contemporary organizations face constant pressure to enhance levels of
service and productivity whilst also improving levels of cost efficiency.
The volatility of external environment and the rapid pace of technological
change increasingly demand innovative means of improving business
performance and securing competitive advantage. Human resources
(HR) are increasingly recognized as the prime source of competitive
advantage and the need for effective people management is therefore
more important than ever before....
The project manager must set expectations about the time required to complete the software among the stakeholders, the team, and the organization’s management.
If those expectations are not realistic from the beginning of the project, the stakeholders will not trust the team or the project manager.
Software requirements are documentation that completely describes the behavior that is required of the software-before the software is designed built and tested.
Requirements analysts (or business analysts) build software requirements specifications through requirements elicitation.
Interviews with the users, stakeholders and anyone else whose perspective needs to be taken into account during the design, development and testing of the software
Observation of the users at work
Distribution of discussion summaries to verify the data gathered in interviews...
Once the SRS has been approved, implementation begins. Programming teams have many options:
The programmers can simply start building the code and create the objects and user interface elements.
Designers can build a user interface prototype to demonstrate to the users, stakeholders and the rest of the team. Any code used to develop the prototype is typically thrown away once the design has been finalized.
Pictures, flow charts, data flow diagrams, database design diagrams and other visual tools can be used to determine aspects of the design and architecture.
A change in project priorities throws the team into disarray
This usually comes from a lack of understanding of the scope of the project
When the engineers don’t understand the users’ and stakeholders’ needs, they build the wrong software
And they might not find out that there’s a problem until after the work is done!
There is a need to expand the skill sets among
EC staff, both at HQ and Delegations. Better under-
standing of some key analytical tools is required,
including how to engage in (and interpret) the results
of policy, sector and institutional analysis.
Developing a better understanding of partner govern-
ment’s planning, budgeting and financial manage-
ment systems is also critical.
A review is any activity in which a work product is distributed to reviewers who examine it and give feedback.
Reviews are useful not only for finding and eliminating defects, but also for gaining consensus among the project team, securing approval from stakeholders, and aiding in professional development for team members.
Reviews help teams find defects soon after they are injected making them cost less to fix than they would cost if they were found in test.
All work products in a software project should be either reviewed or tested.
A stakeholder is an individual or a group that has an interest in the program, its outcomes or benefits.
Stakeholder engagement is the process of identifying and communicating effectively with those people or
groups who have an interest or influence on the project’s outcome. Effective communication with key
stakeholders, both internal and external, is essential to the program’s success.
The development of the Stakeholder Engagement Strategy addresses the vital role of engaging, informing and
managing stakeholders in the achievement of public policy.
Most software is built in organizations for people with specific needs.
A stakeholder is a anyone who has an interest (or stake) in the software being completed
A user is someone who will need to use the software to perform tasks.
Sometimes stakeholders will be users; but often the stakeholder will not use the software.
For example, a senior manager (like a CEO - chief executive officer or CTO - Chief technology officer in a company) will usually have a stake in the software that is built (since it affects the bottom line), even if she won’t ever use it....
This guideline has been developed to advise on the treatment and management of
borderline personality disorder. The guideline recommendations have been developed
by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, service users, a carer and
guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence.