Manufacturing sector

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  • "Why another study of manufacturing processes?" given the host of recent studies concerning manufacturing productivity and national competitiveness. The answer lies in the observation that these previous studies have sought primarily to raise national awareness of problems related to manufacturing and to identify key industries, sectors, or technologies in which the United States has lost, is losing, or may lose its share of the international market. These studies have devoted relatively little attention to the leveraging technologies through which the U.S.

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  • Although MECS data report that coal supplied only 10 percent of the pulp and paper industry’s energy requirements in 2002, NEI data show coal as contributing to 43 percent of the sector’s energy-related CAP emissions. As MECS reports more than 50 percent of the sector’s energy coming from “other” fuels (which includes biomass), NEI data show that biomass (wood waste) is a less emissions-intensive energy source than coal. For wood products, combustion of wood/bark waste is the dominant energy-related source of CAP emissions.

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  • This document is one of several white papers that summarize readily available information on control techniques and measures to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from specific industrial sectors.

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  • To engage communities, particularly environmental justice communities, communities in a dialog about the development of this rulemaking early in the process Part of EPA’s overall outreach strategy to stakeholders Builds on EPA’s earlier Clean Air Act 101 webinar for EPA s communities Rulemaking combines several regulatory programs including programs that look at risk and those that don’t ► ► .

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  • The industrial reforms of the 1980s and early 1990s were accompanied by financial reforms beginning in the mid-1980s. These increased local financial autonomy and reduced the central government’s budgetary support for most firms. Even today, however, firms apply to the central government for budgetary assistance for their largest capital investments. The overall impact of the full set of reforms has been growth in the manufacturing sector at an average annual rate of fifteen percent since 1978.

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  • This collective volume contains nine essays on globalisation, a multidimensional and multidisciplinary issue that we are all deeply concerned. Globalisation is like the force majeure from the ever-expanding universe after the Big Bang. As a result, all the currently functioning national systems have been driven out of their old comfort zones and downgraded to sub-systems, as described by Orlando and González in their joint essay on “thermodynamics”. But, whether we like it or not, globalisation is here to stay....

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  • The Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) Guidelines are technical reference documents with general and industry- specific examples of Good International Industry Practice (GIIP) 1. When one or more members of the World Bank Group are involved in a project, these EHS Guidelines are applied as required by their respective policies and standards. These industry sector EHS guidelines are designed to be used together with the General EHS Guidelines document, which provides guidance to users on common EHS issues potentially applicable to all industry sectors.

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  • The high-technology answer seemed to lie in the creation of new manufacturing sectors, which—by virtue of high growth and rising productivity—might restore the promise of high-wage, stable employment. Such sectors were emerging in Silicon Valley and other centers that increasingly looked to a combination of electronics and information as their stock in trade. But also taking place were profound changes in the nature of manufactur- ing; these changes would be fatal to the cities’ hopes for new sectors.

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  • Max Protect Armored Cars, a private-sector company, provided the following aggregated data for armored construction jobs during a recent period: Direct materials $ 4,480,923 Direct labor 7,296,518 Applied (and actual) factory overhead 2,741,151 Beginning work in process 4,850,032 Ending work in process 5,853,000 a) How much is cost of goods manufactured? Is this necessarily the same as cost of goods sold? Why or why not?

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  • The criteria used to assess measurements are summarised in Table 2.1. Full details are not presented here but have been documented and are available on request (Appendix 2). On the basis of the assessment, proposals were presented in December, January, March and April and reviewed by all project participants (steering group, expert group, project team). The wide range of interests and responsibilities of participants meant that an element of compromise was essential, given realistic expectations of resource availability.

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  • Firms, Workers, and Human Capital in Ghanaian Manufacturing My model is a much simplified version of so-called “multicommunity” models. I maintain the usual assumptions that the number of communities is fixed and finite, and that access to desirable communities is rationed through the real estate market.19 There is no private sector that would de-link school quality from residential location. Although some authors (i.e. Epple and Zelenitz, 1981) include a supply side of the housing market, I assume that communities are endowed with perfectly inelastic stocks of identical houses....

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  • This golden age of the industrial workers in the United States is partly mythological, but it had roots in reality (Webber and Rigby, 1996). Rising living standards, predictable employment at a family wage, and homeownership were no myth for millions of workers. Its effects even spilled onto members of minority groups, particularly African Americans, who continued to be socially marginalized, but who migrated from rural areas to cities and found work in factories.

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  • But with other POPs the transition to safer alternatives will require more effort. Alternatives may be more expensive and their manufacture and use more complicated. That could put developing countries in an awkward spot – struggling from day to day, the world's poor tend to use what they can afford and what is available. So it is not enough for the Convention simply to say No to its target list of POPs: It must also help governments find a way to say Yes to replacement solutions. Take the case of DDT.

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  • Economic reforms implemented since the formation of the GPA have borne positive results for the economy. Real GDP grew by about 6% in 2009 and is estimated to have risen strongly to about 9.0% in 2010, reflecting strong performances in mining (47% growth) due to rising mineral and metal prices and higher agricultural output arising from higher output of tobacco, sugar, maize and cotton. Increases in agricultural output (34% growth) have historically supported manufacturing sector production (Box 1).

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  • The manufacturing sector has always had strong linkages with the agricultural sector, with agriculture sourcing from it over half of intermediate goods, such as insecticides, stock feeds, and fertilizer, while nearly half of agricultural produce is supplied to the manufacturing sector. The performance of the two sectors has historically been closely correlated. The collapse of agricultural activities associated with the implementation of the fast track land reform program by the Government had a devastating impact on the manufacturing sector in the past decade.

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  • There is a clear opportunity to improve new car fuel economy 30% by 2020 and 50% by 2030, in a cost-effective manner (e.g. low or negative cost per tonne of CO2). Improving the efficiency of new cars at this rate would make possible a 50% im- provement in the average fuel economy of all cars on the road worldwide by 2050.

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  • The extent of pollution and toxicity depends upon the raw material used, pulping method, and pulp bleaching process adapted by the pulp and paper mills. For example, the pollution load from hardwood is lower than softwood. On the other hand, the spent liquor generated from pulping of nonwood fiber has a high silica content. Volumes of wastewater discharged may vary from near zero to 400 m3 per ton of pulp depending on the raw material used, manufacturing process, and size of the mill [6].

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  • Pollution control policy is fundamental for our analysis. In 1982 the central government imposed a system of levies on air pollutants, on total wastewater, and on the concentrations of three pollutants contained in wastewater: total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, and other solids. The first two are characteristic of the paper industry. The levy rates were reassessed in 1989 and increased in 1992. Wang et al. (1996) examined the effect of these charges on the effluents on the general manufacturing sector. They found the expected emission-reducing effect.

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  • Recent years have witnessed increasingly growing awareness for long-range planning in all sectors. Companies are concerned more than ever about long-term stability and profitability. The chemical process industries is no exception. New environmental regulations, rising competition, new technology, uncertainty of demand, and fluctuation of prices have all led to an increasing need for decision policies that will be ‘‘best” in a dynamic sense over a wide time horizon. Quantitative techniques have long established their importance in such decision-making problems.

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  • The last point, which is in some ways the most important, is the need for consistency across projects in the same sector. The Portfolio Review found from the experience in sectoral projects, for example water and sanita- tion, that in some cases communities, even very poor communities, have been willing, indeed anxious, to contribute to a service that would meet their needs and that they knew they would receive.

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