Pulp and paper is a mature industry. Industrialised paper manufacturing in Europe started
in the early 19th century (Berkhout, 2005). It is a capital and resource-intensive industry
that contributes to many environmental problems, including global warming, human tox-
icity, eco-toxicity, photochemical oxidation, acidification, nutrification, and solid wastes
(Blazejczak and Edler, 2000).
Paper is made of natural fibres, either from wood or from recycled materials. Figure 1
below presents a schematic representation of the production system.