We address the problem of learning the mapping between words and their possible pronunciations in terms of sub-word units. Most previous approaches have involved generative modeling of the distribution of pronunciations, usually trained to maximize likelihood. We propose a discriminative, feature-rich approach using large-margin learning. This approach allows us to optimize an objective closely related to a discriminative task, to incorporate a large number of complex features, and still do inference efﬁciently. ...
Ethernet-based data services offer the opportunity to create differentiation, command premium pricing, and earn higher margin for such value-added data services as transparent LANs, storage area networks, and virtual private networks. Extending native 10/100Base-T and Gigabit Ethernet services across the LAN, WAN, and MAN means data services are less expensive to deploy, provision quickly, and offer exceptional reliability and security.
This compendium aims at providing a comprehensive overview of the main topics that appear
in any well-structured course sequence in statistics for business and economics at the
undergraduate and MBA levels. The idea is to supplement either formal or informal statistic
textbooks such as, e.g., “Basic Statistical Ideas for Managers” by D.K. Hildebrand and R.L.
Ott and “The Practice of Business Statistics: Using Data for Decisions” by D.S. Moore,
G.P. McCabe, W.M. Duckworth and S.L. Sclove, with a summary of theory as well as with
a couple of extra examples.
Large teletraf®c data sets exhibiting nonstandard features incompatible with classical assumptions of short-range dependence and exponentially decreasing tails can now be explored, for instance, at the ITA Web site www.acm.org=sigcomm=ITA=. These data sets exhibit the phenomena of heavy-tailed marginal distributions and long-range dependence. Tails can be so heavy that only in®nite variance models are possible (e.g., see Willinger et al. ), and sometimes, as in ®le size data, even ®rst moments are in®nite ...
Network support for variable bit rate (VBR) video needs to consider (1) properties of workload induced (e.g., signi®cant autocorrelations into far lags and heterogeneous marginal distributions), and (2) application-speci®c bounds on delay-jitter and statistical cell-loss probabilities. This chapter presents a quality-of-service (QoS) solution for such traf®c at each multiplexing point in a network. Heterogeneity in both-offered workload and quality-of-service requirements are considered. The network is assumed to be cell-switched with virtual circuits (VCs)...
The complementary in shopping does not eliminate the possibility
to discriminate the shoppers and the captives when the two goods are complements.
Rather, it gives an additional ability to do such discrimination without lowering prices
too much as the shoppers have a stronger incentive to shop at one place. We were unable
to solve our model when these costs are present as this task requires nding the marginal
distributions as well as the distribution of the sum of the two prices.
Poverty reduction has two fundamental requirements: enabling the poor
and marginal groups to participate in decisionmaking about their own
development, and giving them access to capital, technology, credit, and
land, especially in the case of the rural poor. Programs to deliver these
basics must be designed with accuracy and sophistication within a frame-
work of macroeconomic social policies whose main objective is poverty
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Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học Journal of Biology đề tài: variance components in a mixed linear model using Gibbs sampling
Marginal inferences about
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Meat and Animal Science, Madison, WI 53706-1284, USA
Summary - Arguing from a Bayesian viewpoint, Gianola and Foulley (1990) derived a new method for estimation of variance components in a mixed linear model: varia...
In practice, empirical work on multidimensional indicators of well-being jux-
taposes several indicators of well-being either by studying the uni-dimensional
(also called the marginal) distributions of each independently or, alternatively, by
aggregating somewhat arbitrarily the set of well-being indicators into a single one.
In order to compare well-being using both income and health indicators, this pa-
per proceeds instead by using two sets of relatively weak measurement conditions
that are sequentially applied to the measurement system.
Ethernet-based data services offer the opportunity to create differentiation, command premium
pricing, and earn higher margins for such value-added data services as transparent LANs, storage
area networks, and virtual private networks. Extending native 10/100Base-T and Gigabit Ethernet
services across the LAN, WAN, and MAN means data services are less expensive to deploy,
provision quickly, and offer exceptional reliability and security.
C H A P T E R S I X T E E N
English marginalism embraces a group of economists, active in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, who used the marginalist method for analyzing economic questions relating, in the ﬁrst instance, to the theories of value and distribution
Official statistics must be interpreted with care, as changes at the margins of firm size categories may
strongly affect size distribution and with that the picture of the role of SMEs in an economy. Wherever
possible, data should be collected on a (sub-national) regional basis as the differences in birth rates and
growth within an economy, and indeed within a locality or region, may be as substantial as between
The introduction of semiconductor lasers has boosted the development of coherent optical communication systems. With the built-in wavelength selection mechanism, distributed feedback semiconductor laser diodes with a higher gain margin are superior to the Fabry– Perot laser in that a single longitudinal mode of lasing can be achieved. In this chapter, results obtained from the threshold analysis of conventional and singlephase-shifted DFB lasers will be investigated. In particular, structural impacts on the threshold characteristic will be discussed in a systematic way. ...
The stratification variables related to the level of education and occupational status were
set as “soft quotas”, that is, a margin of oscillation was allowed around the predefined
strata size required.
In setting the theoretical sample, it was further decided to opt for non-proportional
distribution in relation to the universe, for the demographic variables of gender by age
groups, level of education, and occupational status. The reason was to facilitate the
interpretation of the data (i.e.
Through much of the 1980s and into the 1990s, deﬁcits were a dominant
topic in Washington economic policy discussions. By 1990, annual deﬁcit
forecasts exceeding $300 billion—“as far as the eye can see”—were com-
mon, so that year President Bush agreed to abandon his “no new taxes”
pledge and meet with Democratic leaders of Congress to fashion deﬁcit-
In this paper, we extend the work on using latent cross-language topic models for identifying word translations across comparable corpora. We present a novel precisionoriented algorithm that relies on per-topic word distributions obtained by the bilingual LDA (BiLDA) latent topic model. The algorithm aims at harvesting only the most probable word translations across languages in a greedy fashion, without any prior knowledge about the language pair, relying on a symmetrization process and the one-to-one constraint.
When you finish this chapter, you should: Understand how population growth is shifting in different areas and for different age groups, obtain a feel for the size and importance of Canada's ethnic and French Canadian markets. Know about the distribution of income in Canada, know how consumer spending is related to family life cycle and other demographic dimensions, appreciate the relationship between family lifestage and consumer spending, understand the important new terms (shown in the margins).