In this paper, we present a supervised learning approach to training submodular scoring functions for extractive multidocument summarization. By taking a structured prediction approach, we provide a large-margin method that directly optimizes a convex relaxation of the desired performance measure.
This book is intended primarily for students on economics, business studies and management
courses. It assumes very little prerequisite knowledge, so it can be read by students who have
not undertaken a mathematics course for some time. The style is informal and the book contains
a large number of worked examples. Students are encouraged to tackle problems for
themselves as they read through each section. Detailed solutions are provided so that all
answers can be checked.
In the next section we outline some theoretical and empirical results about
the relationships between monetary policy, the ináation target of monetary
authorities, the level of this target perceived by the public and the long term
interest rates dynamics. In section 3, we present the works of Kozicki and
Tinsley (1998, 2001a, 2001b) and we establish the interest of this model
in our framework.
Throughout this publication we have made reference to IFRS 4, the Implementation
Guidance and Basis for Conclusions accompanying the Standard, as well as other
current statements of IFRS. Direct quotations from IFRSs are included in dark blue
within the text.
A column noted as Reference is included in the left margin of Sections 1
through 15 to enable users to identify the relevant paragraphs of IFRS 4,
the Interpretation Guidance and Basis for Conclusions as well as references to
other applicable Standards.
Included in the SME interest margin charged by banks is an element of price that
reflects the probability, from the banks’ experience and data, that some of its SME
customers will not be able to repay the debt. The methodology and calculations used to
determine the cost associated with the risk of lending are set out under international
rules by the Basel Regulatory Framework4
. Regulators also give guidance to banks
with regard to the buffers needed to protect banks in the event of shocks to the
Access to microfinance services can end the marginalization of the poor and include them in mainstream society,
encourage responsibility and promote economic activity. Moreover, access to financial services has a particularly
strong catalytic effect when these services are targeted toward women. Thanks to their own efforts and the availability
of financial services geared to their needs, it is estimated that by 2007, 100 million of the world’s poorest families
were able to improve their lives.
In this chapter you will analyze the labor demand of competitive, profitmaximizing firms, consider the household decisions that lie behind labor supply, learn why equilibrium wages equal the value of the marginal product of labor, consider how the other factors of production land and capital are compensated, examine how a change in the supply of one factor alters the earnings of all the factors.
When you finish this chapter, you should: Understand the information given by a production function; explain two efficiency concepts: technical efficiency and economic efficiency; define and give examples of three types of inputs used in production: variable inputs, fixed inputs, and quasi-fixed inputs;...
Chapter 5 "Supply decisions", after reading this chapter, you should be able to: Explain what the production function reveals; explain why the law of diminishing returns applies; describe the nature of fixed, variable, and marginal costs; illustrate the difference between production and investment decisions; discuss how accounting costs and economic costs differ.
Chapter 8 - Production and cost in the short run. When you finish this chapter, you should: Understand the information given by a production function; explain two efficiency concepts: technical efficiency and economic efficiency; define and give examples of three types of inputs used in production: variable inputs, fixed inputs, and quasi-fixed inputs;...
This book is for business managers, as well as for bankers,
consultants, lawyers, and other professionals who need a
solid and practical understanding of how business makes
profit, cash flow from profit, the assets and capital needed to
support profit-making operations, and the cost of capital.
Business managers and professionals don’t have time to
wade through a 600-page tome; they need a practical guide
that gets to the point directly with clear and convincing
8 Introduction to calculus
Differentiate functions with one unknown variable. Find the slope of a function using differentiation. Derive marginal revenue and marginal cost functions using differentiation and relate them to the slopes of the corresponding total revenue and cost functions.
Notes to the students: The concept of “Marginal Physical Product – MPP” in this problem set is exactly the same that of “Marginal Productivity – MP” in the lecture Multiple Choice Questions
1. Which of the following are factors of production?
A. Output in a production function
C. Land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship
D. Implicit and explicit costs
Then work backwards on the
overall margins to see what the range will need to be for your product to be competitive
in the end market and pay for all the value chain functions between you and the
consumer. Price margin examples have been provided for handicraft items, but note
that other product lines – food, personal care products, etc. many have different
margins. Shipping and warehouse costs tend to be consistent across products, since
space is space for these functions. The exception is when climate controlled (e.g.
An organized system of follow-up is important for all device patients and is best facilitated through the patient's membership in a formal pacemaker/ICD follow-up clinic. The first formal clinic follow-up visit is usually scheduled at approximately 3 months after implantation to allow for completion of the lead-tissue maturation process, which may affect sensing and capture thresholds. Reprogramming, to account for any threshold change since implant, and still provide a safety margin along with improved battery life, may be done at that time.
Schoder and Zweifel Health Economics Review 2011, 1:2 http://www.healtheconomicsreview.com/content/1/1/2
Flat-of-the-curve medicine: a new perspective on the production of health
Johannes Schoder* and Peter Zweifel
Abstract Health economists have studied the determinants of the expected value of health status as a function of medical and non-medical inputs, often finding small marginal effects of the former. However, medical inputs may have an additional benefit in the form of a reduced variability of health status.
This book is available at a special discount when ordered in bulk quantities. For information, contact Special Sales Department, AMACOM, a division of American Management Association, 1601 Broadway, New York, NY 10019. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional service. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought.
Setting Equation (6) equal to zero and solving for P
also provides the level of population at the turning point as referred to
above. Our results therefore clearly suggest that the marginal impact of
population on sulfur dioxide emissions is an increasing function of the level
of population i.e., the greater the level of population, the greater the envi-
ronmental impact of each additional unit of population.
As a next step, column III reports results from the model that examines
the role played by the age structure of the population.
Because of the small size of the new member states, the enlargement will affect
the Euro Area’s growth and inflation rates only to a limited extent. Both rates
will nevertheless rise slightly without affecting the dynamics. Whereas the
higher growth rate may not have any impact on the functioning of the Euro
Area, the higher trend inflation rate might affect monetary policy. Of course,
the impact will in all likelihood remain small, however the definition of price
stability may have to be considered and marginally adjusted.
The effect of wealth on consumption has been studied extensively in the empirical
literature on consumption functions. In this section we provide a brief overview of
the ﬁndings of these studies.
Few studies have examined the relationship between consumption and total wealth
for Australia. Tan and Voss (2003) have estimated the marginal propensity to
consume (MPC) out of total wealth at 0.04 or, in other words, that long-run annual
consumption increases by 4 cents in response to a one dollar increase in wealth.
Bertaut (2002) puts this number marginally higher at 0.05.