established in the earliest history of the planet or as
the result of a continuing supply of water and the
constituents of sea water by degassing from the
In 1951 W.W. Rubey, in his Presidential Address to
the Geological Society of America, took the latter point
of view. His arguments were colored by the knowledge
available at that time of the age of the Earth and the
age of the oldest rocks. Based on the analysis of lead
isotopes in galenas, it was determined in the late 1940s
that the Earth was about 3.2 billion years old.
The oceans cover over 70% of our planet's surface. Their physical, chemical and
biological properties form the basis of the essential controls that facilitate life on
Earth. Current concerns such as global climate change, pollution of the world's
oceans, declining fish stocks, and the recovery of inorganic and organic chemicals
and pharmaceuticals from the oceans call for greater knowledge of this complex
medium. This volume brings together a number of experts in marine science and
technology to provide a wide-ranging examination of some issues of major
Monitoring the environment for metals has become a topic of considerable importance, not only to
those industries emitting heavy metals but also to surveillance agencies and other organizations assessing
the impact of metals on the environment. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive and easyto-
read text for anyone working in the environmental analytical chemistry arena and to provide
essential information to consultants and regulators about analytical and quality control procedures
helpful in their evaluation and decision-making procedures.
A compilation of the most important aerosol chemical processes involved in known scientific and technological disciplines, Aerosol Chemical Processes in the Environment serves as a handbook for aerosol chemistry. Aerosol science is interdisciplinary, interfacing with many environmental, biological and technological research fields. Aerosols and aerosol research play an important role in both basic and applied scientific and technological fields. Interdisciplinary cooperation is useful and necessary.
Understanding and quantitative describing of marine ecosystems requires an integration
of physics, chemistry and biology. The coupling between physics, which
regulates for example nutrient availability and the physical position of many organisms
is particularly important and thus cannot be described by biology alone.
Therefore the appropriate basis for theoretical investigations of marine systems are
coupled models, which integrate physical, chemical and biological interactions.
The ocean absorbs a significant portion of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human
activities, equivalent to about one-third of the total emissions for the past 200 years from fossil
fuel combustion, cement production and land use change (Sabine et al., 2004). Uptake of CO2 by
the ocean benefits society by moderating the rate of climate change but also causes
unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry, decreasing the pH of the water and leading to a suite
of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification.
“Botanica marina” is a new international journal devoted to the taxonomy, morphology, ecology, physiology and chemistry of seaweeds and other marine algae. Each yearly volume will have four issues of 32 pages: additional issues will be devoted to the industry and technology of seaweed products.
The National Institute of General Medical Sciences is committed
to encouraging and supporting basic biomedical and behavioral
research in which scientists explore the unknown. Important
medical advances have grown from the pursuit of curiosity about
fundamental questions in biology, physics, and chemistry.1 For example:
n A scientist studying marine snails found a powerful
new drug for chronic pain.
n Studying how electricity affects microbes led to a
widely used cancer medicine.