This book is written for marine structural engineers and naval architects, as well as mechanical
engineers and civil engineers who work on struch~ral design. The preparation of the book is
motivated by extensive use of the finite element analysis and dynamidfatigue analysis, fast paced
advances in computer and information technology, and application of risk and reliability methods.
This third editon has been intensively augmented and revised to include the latest
developments in this rapidly expanding field. The intensified search for oil and gas, the
catastrophic flooding of coastal regions and the demands for transportation, bridges, submerged
tunnels and waterways have led to the continuing innovation of new technology
which isnowavailable for use on more conventional projects as well as those at the frontiers.
This text is intended as a guide and reference for practicing engineers and constructors
for use in the marine environment.
Palytoxin is a marine toxin responsible for a fatal type of poisoning in
humans named clupeotoxism, with symptoms such as neurologic distur-bances. It is believed that it binds to the Na
-ATPase from the extra-cellular side and modifies cytosolic ions; nevertheless, its effects on internal
cell structures, such as the cytoskeleton, which might be affected by these
initial events, have not been fully elucidated.
After screening 25 marine invertebrates, a novel metallocarboxypeptidase
(SmCP) has been identified by activity and MS analytical approaches, and
isolated from the marine annelid Sabellastarte magnifica. The enzyme,
which is a minor component of the molecularly complex animal body, as
shown by 2D gel electrophoresis, has been purified from crude extracts to
homogeneity by affinity chromatography on potato carboxypeptidase inhib-itor and by ion exchange chromatography.
A novel nucleosidase enzymatic activity was discovered in
the marine spongeAxinella polypoides. This enzyme, desig-nated as ATP N-glycosidase, converts adenosine-5¢-tri-phosphate into adenine and ribose-5-triphosphate. The
crude extract ofA.polypoideswas capable of hydrolysing
per g wet weight of sponge. The cata-lytic activity of a sponge crude extract permg total protein is
comparable with specific activities of purified plant adeno-sine and bacterial AMP nucleosidases.
In the early 1970s, the United States government identified and became
wary of hazardous materials in soil, surface water, groundwater, and building
structures. Most of these contaminants resulted from the evolution of
technology without the benefit of chemical regulatory controls. The cost for
cleanup of such sites was projected to exceed a trillion dollars, the burden
of which was to be borne by the taxpayer and responsible parties. The term
“responsible party” is a broad term but, in the final analysis, a responsible
party is usually a property owner....
established in the earliest history of the planet or as
the result of a continuing supply of water and the
constituents of sea water by degassing from the
In 1951 W.W. Rubey, in his Presidential Address to
the Geological Society of America, took the latter point
of view. His arguments were colored by the knowledge
available at that time of the age of the Earth and the
age of the oldest rocks. Based on the analysis of lead
isotopes in galenas, it was determined in the late 1940s
that the Earth was about 3.2 billion years old.
The last decade has contributed significantly to the development of research on the
biogeochemistry of tropical mangrove ecosystems. Also obvious during the last
decade is the continued and dramatic destruction of natural tropical mangrove
resources in Southeast Asia (Fig. 1.1). The naturally high productivity of tropi-
cal mangroves has traditionally been exploited for a wide variety of purposes,
both as sources of forestry or fisheries products and they have also been used
for human settlement (Hatcher et al., 1989; Platong, 1998).
Water contamination weakens or destroys natural
ecosystems that support human health, food production,
and biodiversity. Studies have estimated that the value of
ecosystem services is double the gross national product of
the global economy, and the role of freshwater ecosystems
in purifying water and assimilating wastes has been
valued at US$ 400 billion (2008$) (Costanza et al. 1997).
Freshwater ecosystems are among the most degraded on
the planet, and have suffered proportionately greater species
and habitat losses than terrestrial or marine ecosystems
(Revenga et al. 2000).
Challenges to sustaining the productivity of oceanic and coastal fisheries
have become more critical and complex as these fisheries reach the upper
limits to ocean harvests. In addition, it is now clear that we are managing
interactive and dynamic food webs rather than sets of independent single-species
Available data suggest that, in addition to the obvious catches of fish for human needs, the by-
catches in the world’s fisheries have a significant ecological impact and cause mortality amongst fin-fish
(particularly the juveniles of commercial fish species), as well as amongst benthic invertebrates, marine
mammals, turtles and birds.
Disulfide pairings and active site residues are highly conserved in secretory
phospholipases A2 (PLA2s). However, secretory PLA2
s of marine inverte-brates display some distinctive structural features. In this study, we report
the isolation and characterization of a PLA2 from the northern Pacific sea
anemone,Urticina crassicornis(UcPLA2), containing a C27N substitution
and a truncated C-terminal sequence.
Rapid evolution driven by positive Darwinian selection appears in toxins of
vipers, scorpions, and marine snails. Although the vast phylogenetic distan-ces between these animals suggest that this phenomenon is common, the
recent release of the genome ofNematostella vectensis(Starlet anemone) as
a collection of contigs portrays another extreme.
The chemical structure of a novel lipid A, the major com-ponent of the lipopolysaccharide from the marine gamma-proteobacteriumMarinomonas vagaATCC 27119
determined by compositional analysis, NMR spectroscopy,
Important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England during the 17th century when Sir Isaac Newton both formulated the three Newton's Laws of Motion and developed Calculus, the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his methods and laws for years, but he was finally persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Sir Edmund Halley, much to the benefit of all mankind.
Adaptation to extreme environments affects the stability and catalytic effi-ciency of enzymes, often endowing them with great industrial potential.
We compared the environmental adaptation of the secreted endonuclease
I from the cold-adapted marine fish pathogenVibrio salmonicida(VsEndA)
and the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae (VcEndA).
The effects of pesticide contamination on the metabolism of marine mol-luscs are poorly documented. We investigated the response of a marine
bivalve, the Pacific oyster,Crassostrea gigas, using a suppression subtrac-tive hybridization method to identify up- and down-regulated genes after a
30-day exposure period to herbicides (a cocktail of atrazine, diuron and
isoproturon, and to the single herbicide glyphosate). A total of 137 unique
differentially expressed gene sequences was identified, as well as their asso-ciated physiological process....
The crystal structure of a subtilisin-like serine proteinase from the psychro-trophic marine bacterium, Vibriosp. PA-44, was solved by means of
molecular replacement and refined at 1.84 A˚ . This is the first structure of a
cold-adapted subtilase to be determined and its elucidation facilitates
examination of the molecular principles underlying temperature adaptation
Recent studies have shown that the Porifera, with the
examples of the demosponges Suberites domunculaand
Geodia cydonium, comprise a series of pathways found also
in the immune systemofDeuterostomia, suchas vertebrates,
but are absent in Protostomia, with insects or nematodes as
examples. One pathway is the (2¢)5¢)oligoadenylate syn-thetase [(2±5)A synthetase] system.
Đối với hai thập kỷ, Ben Gerwick của khả năng để nắm bắt hiện trạng thực hành và trình bày nó 1 cách đơn giản dễ tiêu hóa, xây dựng biển và ra nước ngoài cấu trúc các tài liệu tham khảo của sự lựa chọn cho kỹ sư xây dựng hiện đại, dân sự và hàng hải Các phiên bản 3 này lâu nămcuốn sách bán chạy nhất tiếp tục là hướng dẫn hiện đại nhất và có thẩm quyền trong lĩnh vực Dựa trên cuộc đời của tác giả kinh nghiệm, cuốn sách cũng kết hợp thông tin...