Xem 1-20 trên 132 kết quả Material growth
  • The known dependency between the hardness and abrasion resistance became the foundation for the development of harder and harder coating materials. The progress in the field of producing coatings in the physical vapour deposition process enables the obtainment of coatings of nanocrystal structure presenting high mechanical and usable properties.

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  • In the last decade, we have witnessed a rapid growth in research and development of nanotechnology, especially nanostructured materials. Nanoporous materials as an important class of nanostructured materials possess high specific surface area, large pore volume, uniform pore size, and rich surface chemistry. These materials present great promises and opportunities for a new generation of functional materials with improved and tailorable properties for applications in adsorption, membranes, sensors, energy storage, catalysis and photocatalysis, and biotechnology, etc.

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  • The designations employed and the presentation of material do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, its authorities, its current or former official name or the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

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  • Worldwide attention to environmental issues combined with the energy crisis force us to reduce greenhouse emissions and increase the usage of renewable energy sources as a solution to providing an efficient environment. This book addresses the current issues of sustainable growth and applications in renewable energy sources. The fifteen chapters of the book have been divided into two sections to organize the information accessible to readers.

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  • High hardness and strength of the nanocomposite coatings are due to the fact that the movement of dislocations is suppressed at small grains and in the spaces between them, which causes the appearance of incoherent deformations. When the grain size is reduced to that of nanometres, the activity of dislocations as the source of the material ductility is restricted.

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  • Ferroelectric materials have been and still are widely used in many applications, that have moved from sonar towards breakthrough technologies such as memories or optical devices. This book is a part of a four volume collection (covering material aspects, physical effects, characterization and modeling, and applications) and focuses on ways to obtain high-quality materials exhibiting large ferroelectric activity. The book covers the aspect of material synthesis and growth, doping and composites, lead-free devices, and thin film synthesis....

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  • Ferroelectric materials have been and still are widely used in many applications, that have moved from sonar towards breakthrough technologies such as memories or optical devices. This book is a part of a four volume collection (covering material aspects, physical effects, characterization and modeling, and applications) and focuses on ways to obtain high-quality materials exhibiting large ferroelectric activity. The book covers the aspect of material synthesis and growth, doping and composites, lead-free devices, and thin film synthesis....

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  • The steady increase in industrialization, urbanization and enormous population growth are leading to production of huge quantities of wastewaters that may frequently cause environmental hazards. Raw or treated waste water is very oft en discharged to freshwaters and results in changing ecological performance and biological diversity of these systems. About 70% of water supplied ends up as wastewater and several natural water reservoirs are being contaminated by untreated sewage/industrial effl uents. This makes waste water treatment and waste water reduction very important issues....

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  • The U.S. economic expansion is now in its tenth year, showing no signs of slowing down. The rate of labor productivity growth has doubled in recent years, instead of falling as the expansion matured as in previous postwar expansions. Moreover, core inflation remains low despite record employment and the lowest jobless rates in a generation. Our sustained economic strength with low inflation suggests that the U.S.

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  • Polymers are materials of very high molecular weight that are found to have multifarious applications in our modern society. They usually consist of several structural units bound together by covalent bonds [1,2]. For example, polyethy- lene is a long-chain polymer and is represented by

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  • This volume is an update of the book, Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis, first published in 1993. The aims of this second edition remain the same as those of the earlier edition—to provide a compilation of soil analytical and sampling methods that are commonly used, straightforward, and relatively easy to use. The materials and procedures for these methods are presented with sufficient detail and information, along with key references, to characterize the potential and limitation of each method....

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  • The field of simulation is broad and multidisciplinary and has had an impressive growth since the 90’s. While the area of simulation has been expanding to new horizons in traditional systems research, there are yet a series of unsolved epistemological issues David et al. (2010).

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  • Architectural Press An imprint of Elsevier Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA 01803 First published 2004 Copyright © 2004, David Walters and Linda Luise Brown All rights reserved The right of David Walters and Linda Luise Brown to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 All rights reserved.

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  • This book focuses on the Fourier transform applications in the analysis of some types of materials. The field of Fourier transform has seen explosive growth during the past decades, as phenomenal advances both in research and application have been made. During the preparation of this book, we found that almost all the textbooks on materials analysis have a section devoted to the Fourier transform theory. Most of those describe some formulas and algorithms, but one can easily be lost in seemingly incomprehensible mathematics....

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  • Due to economic growth and increasing population, energy demands must be satisfied in a sustainable manner assuring inherent safety, efficiency and minimized environmental impact. Nuclear power has long posed a dilemma for environmentalists and scientists alike. On the one hand it is seen as a cheap, clean energy source whilst on the other some have concerns over its ability to dispose of radioactive waste.

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  • Global change, including climate change, ecosystem shifts and biodiversity loss as a result of explosive human population growth and consumption, is emerging as one of the most important issues of our time (Vitousek, 1994). Climate change in particular appears to be altering the function, structure and stability of the Earth’s ecosystems (Lovelock, 2009). It has been marked by an 80% increase in atmospheric CO2 level and a 0.

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  • The discovery of superconductivity in copper oxide perovskite (1) has opened a new era of research in superconducting materials. This class of materials not only show high-temperature superconductivity but also show properties that are different from classical superconductors. This offers a great challenge to understanding the basic phenomenon that causes superconductivity in these materials and to developing the appropriate preparation methods so that these can be exploited for a wide range of applications.

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  • It is estimated that approximately one-third of the world’s population are using groundwater for drinking purposes. Pollution of ground water due to industrial effluents is a major issue (Vasanthavigar et al., 2011). Poor groundwater quality brings negative impact to human health and plant growth. In developing countries like India, it is estimated that around 80% of all diseases are directly related to poor drinking water quality and unhygienic conditions (Olajire & Imeokparia, 2001; Vasanthavigar et al., 2011).

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  • Invention of solid-state transistors and integrated circuits has spawned the information age and the growth in the past 50 years has been phenomenal and unrivaled. Nowadays, information is at people’s fingertips and communications take seconds rather than days like 20 years ago. Such rapid development stems from tremendous developments in both hardware and software such as solid-state circuits.

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  • The automotive industry is experiencing a considerable “stress period”, which can lead to important changes in the whole industry. Many aspects contribute to this situation, starting from the global recession (unemployment rates, slowing growth, etc.) to credit meltdown (dependency of car sales on credit, OEM refi nancing, etc.) and fi nishing with globalization aspects (global sourcing, foreign investments, etc.) and “green challenges” (both for the industry and the fi nal products)....

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