Material technology

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  • In 2020, areas of particular importance for technology trends will include biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials technology, and information technology. The authors of this report assessed a sample of 29 countries across the spectrum of scientific advancement (low to high) with respect to their ability to acquire and implement 16 key technology applications (e.g., cheap solar energy, rural wireless communications, genetically modified crops). The study

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  • information technology industry is the application of technology management and information processing IT industry to use computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and gather information. This book is for those materials and specialized information technology and computers, including the words, English grammar information technology industry.

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  • This text offers 25 topic-based units, each covering a key area of IT. There is a variety of texts and visual material, taken from textbooks, newspapers, computing magazines, web pages, manuals, and advertisements. The course revises and practises grammar and functions appropriate to the needs of IT specialists at intermediate level, developing all four skills, with the main emphasis on reading. Most units end with longer specialist reading texts. These are intentionally challenging, and can be used either for homework or self-study.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'welding material handbook', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • The chapter commences by reviewing the properties of the broad classes of materials used in film coating, polymers, plasticizers, pigments and solvents (or vehicles). An initial consideration of the polymers shows that while processing is most commonly performed using these materials in solution, there are systems which utilize polymers in suspension in water. The mechanism of coalescence and film formation for these types of materials are discussed.

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  • While selecting the coating material, we encounter a barrier caused by the fact that numerous properties expected from an ideal coating are impossible to be obtained simultaneously. For example, an increase in hardness and strength causes the reduction of the coating’s ductility and adherence to the substrate.

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  • Clothing is one of our basic needs in life. The second most important technique of manufacturing either clothing or clothing material is the knitting. Apparently, knitting is a very simple technique of making fabric or clothing, but it has complexity too. The more we study and the more we research on knitting, more and more mysteries of knitting are being unveiled and we become more confident to control the technology of knitting for producing from simpler to complex fabrics for diversified applications in addition to traditional apparels even at a very high speed....

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  • The unwritten record of history is preserved in buildings—in temples, fortresses, sanctuaries, and cities constructed of brick and stone. Early efforts to build permanent shelter were limited to the materials at hand. The trees of a primeval forest, the clay and mud of a river valley, the rocks, caves, and cliffs of a mountain range afforded only primitive opportunity for protec- tion, security, and defense and few examples survive. But the stone and brick of skeletal architectural remains date as far back as the temples of Ur built in 3000 B.C.

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  • Synthesis has a central role in the development of Science especially in Chemistry. The strategies adopted in synthesis of molecules and materials have undergone considerable changes in recent times and it was felt that it may be necessary to assess and assimilate information on this topic in a single place. Though, no originality is claimed to the contents on this topic, the very fact that the available information on this topic is available in one place itself is considered to be a major step forward.

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  • The increasing demand for energy worldwide, together with the depletion of crude oil reserves, environmental threats due to greenhouse gas emissions and new national and international legislation, is resulting in the imperative for petroleum-derived fuels to be complemented or substituted by biofuels. Such an alternative, renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic biofuel is biodiesel. The book “Biodiesel: Feedstocks and Processing Technologies” is intended to provide a professional look on the recent achievements and emerging trends in biodiesel production.

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  • The third book of four-volume edition of “Solar Cells” is devoted to solar cells based on silicon wafers, i.e., the main material used in today's photovoltaics. Single-crystalline Si (c-Si) modules are among the most efficient but at the same time the most expensive since they require the highest purity silicon and involve a lot of stages of complicated processes in their manufacture. Polycrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells are less expensive to produce solar cells but are less efficient.

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  • Recycling of plastic materials is now an important field in the plastics industry, not just an activity born under environmental pressure. The recycling processes include industrial operations in which secondary materials are reprocessed and/or monomers recovered for further polymerization; such processes are termed secondary and tertiary recycling.

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  • Nanowires can be defined as structures with thicknesses or diameters of tens of nanometers or less and unconstrained lengths. Many different types of nanowires exist, including metallic (e.g., Ni, Pt, Au or different alloys based on metals), semiconducting (e.g., Si, InP, GaN, etc.), insulating (e.g., SiO2, TiO2), and molecular nanowires (e.g. organic DNA or inorganic). Nanowires have many interesting properties that are not seen in bulk or 3-D materials.

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  • The application of the nanostructure coatings is seen as the solution of this issue (Voevodin et al., 2005; Yang et al., 2007). According to the Hall–Petch equation, the strength properties of the material rise along with the reduction of the grain size. In case of the coatings deposited in the PVD processes, the structures obtained with grain size ~10 nm cause the obtainment of the maximum mechanical properties.

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  • It is less than five years since the last edition of Modern Physical Metallurgy was enlarged to include the related subject of Materials Science and Engineering, appearing under the title Metals and Materials: Science, Processes, Applications. In its revised approach, it covered a wider range of metals and alloys and included ceramics and glasses, polymers and composites, modern alloys and surface engineering.

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  • Materials are important to mankind because of the benefits that can be derived from the manipulation of their properties, for example electrical conductivity, dielectric constant, magnetization, optical transmittance, strength and toughness. Materials science is a broad field and can be considered to be an interdisciplinary area. Included within it are the studies of the structure and properties of any material, the creation of new types of materials, and the manipulation of a material's properties to suit the needs of a specific application....

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  • - of the third edition, while maintaining an emphasis on nutrition and, in particular, the effects of processing on the nutritive value of the products as compared with that of the raw cereals. However, some new material has been introduced, notably sections dealing with extrusion cooking and the use of cereals for animal feed, and the section on industrial uses for cereals has been considerably enlarged. A change in the fourth edition, which readers of earlier editions will notice, is the order in which the material is presented.

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  • Thin-film science and technology play a crucial role in the high-tech industries that will bear the main burden of future American competitiveness. While the major exploitation of thin films has been in microelectronics, there are numerous and growing applications in communications, optical electronics, coatings of all kinds, and in energy generation and conservation strategies.

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  • Provides insight into advanced tool materials, physical theory and research understanding of metal cutting processes. The text highlights technology developed internationally, and reviews available technology of metal cutting processes, such as turning, boring, milling and drilling. It also elucidates optimum choices for tool material and cutting conditions, and more.

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  • Casting process is the most direct method of producing a product from the chosen material. Though products in all the three major classes of materials, metals, ceramics and polymers can be produced by this method, casting of metals is by far the most widely used process. The basic steps in the casting process are preparation of the material in the liquid state, transferring the liquid material into a shaping mold, allowing the transformation of liquid material in the mold into a solid form.

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