Maternal immunity

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  • A need for a book on immunology which primarily focuses on the needs of medical and clinical research students was recognized. This book is relatively short and contains topics considered relevant to the understanding of human immune system and its role in health and diseases. Immunology is the study of our protection from foreign macromolecules or invading organisms and our responses to them. These invaders include viruses, bacteria, protozoa or even larger parasites.

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  • The line of demarcation made between infancy and childhood, both by ancient and modern writers, has always been arbitrary. I would draw the line between the two, at a period of time which appears to me to be the most natural, the most simple, and least likely to lead the reader into the danger of misapplying any part of the practical directions of this, or any future chapter of the work. We will consider, then, that-- Infancy, commencing with birth, extends to about the end of the second year, when the first dentition is completed....

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  • For this reason, levels of mental distress among communities need to be understood less in terms of individual pathology and more as a response to relative deprivation and social injustice, which erode the emotional, spiritual and intellectual resources essential to psychological wellbeing. While psycho- social stress is not the only route through which disadvantage affects outcomes, it does appear to be pivotal.

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  • In 2005, the baseline country studies pointed to a lack of connection between advocacy for reduction of maternal mortality in national-level planning and the necessary linkage to effective programmatic responses through resource allocation, capacity- building and human-resource development. The 2011 case-studies suggest that this problem persists: despite a closing of the gap between policy and programmes, the limited progress with improving health outcomes has shown the importance of strengthening health systems – particularly for maternal and newborn health.

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  • Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health is the only accredited school of public health in New York City and is among the first in the nation. Its students and multidisciplinary faculty members engage in research, both locally and globally, concentrating on biostatistics, environmental health sci- ences, epidemiology, health policy and management, population and family health, and sociomedical sciences.

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  • Most of my previous books have been released under a slightly different Creative Com- mons license, one that allowed for derivative works (that is, new creative works based on this one). Keen observers will have already noticed that this book is licensed “NoDerivs” -- that is, you can't make remixes without permission. A word of explanation for this shift is in order. When I first started publishing under Creative Commons licenses, I had to carefully explain this to my editor and publisher at Tor Books.

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  • In direct marketing, only a limited number of all potential customers will be selected for the direct promotion. As a result, the classification model is required to rank customers by how likely they belong to the class initiating the contact. Exactly how many will be selected in order to achieve the highest net profit depends on the performance of the model. For this reason, a classifier adopted for direct marketing should not only classify, but also classify with a confidence measurement for ranking observations.

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  • One of the chief benefits enjoyed by Academics is the chance to have exchange and interchange with both specialists and trainees. During our respective careers, we have derived, and continue to derive, great rewards from this invaluable communication, and this was indeed the driving force behind the undertaking of this editorship. The field of Obstetrics differs substantially from that of plain Gynecology as from other specialties as well, since the wishes and expectations of the pregnant woman are very specific and unusually exacting.

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  • Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by a mediator imbalance with a predominance of vasoconstriction and cell proliferation involving all layers of the vessel. The end result is an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, increased workload of the right ventricle, and right ventricular hypertrophy to maintain an adequate flow. Subsequently, right ventricular dilatation ensues the signs and symptoms of right heart failure occurence.

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  • The metabolic assay results indicated that vitrified tissue had viability similar to fresh controls. More recent study with tissue-engineered blood vessels using polyglycolic acid scaffold showed that ice formation in tissue-engineered blood vessels was negligible in the vitrified specimens but extensive (68.3 + 4.5% of vessel area) in the extracellular matrix of frozen specimens. The vitrified tissue had a viability similar to fresh controls and the contractility results for vitrified samples were 82.7% of fresh controls but markedly reduced in the frozen samples (10.

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  • The impact of an earthquake, flood or war on reproductive health can be devastating. Communities in crisis are suddenly deprived of reproductive health information and services. Access is cut off, yet needs persist, even escalate. A large number of refugees and internally displaced women will be pregnant, facing delivery under dangerous conditions; others may be victims of violence including rape. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) is committed to assisting and protecting women, men and youth made vulnerable by natural disaster, armed conflict, persecution and other causes.

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  • In 2001, as many as 7.0 billion credit transfers were processed by the German banking industry. 460.1 million of them were submitted via PC or terminal from customers to their bank. As the number of internet-linked accounts increases in Germany as well as customer acceptance of using the modern communication infrastructure for accessing their banks, this number is expected to increase further.

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  • Three themes run through the essay. Think medium term! The financial cycle is much longer than the traditional business cycle. Think monetary! Modelling the financial cycle correctly, rather than simply mimicking some of its features superficially, requires recognising fully the fundamental monetary nature of our economies: the financial system does not just allocate, but also generates, purchasing power, and has very much a life of its own. Think global! The global economy, with its financial, product and input markets, is highly integrated.

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  • The impact of undernutrition on young girls has received special attention. In many parts of the world, poverty often interacts with sociocultural factors that make girls and adult women less favoured than men. Female infants and children commonly receive less medical care and also less and lower-quality food than male children.

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  • Customers who purchased caps are not included in the scope of the review unless they complain to their bank during the course of the independent review and are non-sophisticated customers. If the customer does complain, it will be considered in the same way as the other interest rate hedging products (except structured collars) category. However, if a customer complains after the independent review, their complaint will be dealt with in accordance with the banks’ usual complaints handling procedures.

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  • The core of this chapter is a discussion of EITC-related behavioral issues and research. Section 3.3 provides EITC program statistics. As would be expected with a program that has more than tripled in size (in real dollars) in the 1990s, a considerable amount of attention has been paid to the EITC in recent years. In section 3.4, we outline the conceptual underpinnings of much of this recent work and discuss EITC participation and compliance, its effects on labor force participation and hours of work, marriage and fer- tility, skill formation, and consumption.

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  • In the next section, we offer an overview of the economic logic behind microfinance institutions, describe how the movement from socially oriented non-profit microfinance institutions to for-profit microfinance has occurred, and lay out some of the unanswered questions about the role of commercialization in microfinance. We then seek answers to some of these questions by drawing on a data set that includes most of the world’s leading microfinance institutions.

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  • It may be noted in this connection, on the one hand, that a population which is in no degree habituated to the modern industrial process is unable to adapt its mode of life to the requirements of this method of supplying human wants, and so can derive but little benefit, and possibly great discomfort, from a forcible intrusion of the machine industry; as, for instance, many of the outlying barbarian peoples with whom the Western industrial culture is now enforcing a close contact.

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  • A sole-source contract is appropriate if your project is very small, if you already have experience in finding and working with conservation professionals, or if the project is so complex that bid specifications could be inconclusive. Be aware, however, that this option may not automatically be available when working with a government agency’s contracting office; you may have to seek an exception. Always make the case against a sealed bid process, in which cost is the sole determining factor.

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  • Where an acquisition exceeds the specified threshold or there is a change in control of a listed company, the acquirer must provide an exit opportunity to the shareholders through a timely public offer with appropriate disclosures. In certain acquisitions, such as an inter se transfer of shares between the promoter, Indian promoter and foreign collaborator, pursuant to a scheme of arrangement/amalgamation, no open offer is required, subject to disclosures being made. The government can order the amalgamation of two or more companies if this is in the public interest.

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