Further, Fich and Shivdasani (2006) find that firms with a majority of their outside
directors serving on three or more boards have lower profitability. Thus busy non-
executive directors may be over-committed and therefore unable to fulfil the role of
effective monitors. In addition, Vafeas (2003) reports that longer outside director
tenure adversely affects firm performance. Hwang and Kim (2009) find that the
existence of substantial social ties between outside directors and top management
diminishes the effectiveness of the monitoring role of non-executive directors. ...
Eight different isomeric forms of vitamin E (4 tocopherols and 4 tocotrienols) have been
found in nature. Tocotrienols (α, β, γ and δ) are identical in structure to tocopherols except
for the degree of saturation in their side chain. However, α-tocopherol is considered to be
the most active form of vitamin E in humans. It has been found that the concentrations of
vitamin E isomers in human feces are higher than in plasma – possibly due to its limited
absorption from the diet, suggesting that it could play a protective role against RONS
produced in the GI tract (Halliwell...
Although we are primarily interested in the housing consumption of the elderly, we did not limit
our analysis to the householders aged 62 and older. For comparison purposes, we looked at all
householders. We did this by segregating the householder population into seven age cohorts.
The number of age cohorts is large enough to let us capture changes in housing consumption
over individuals’ lifecycle, without being overly burdensome on the analysis. The cohort widths
have been defined such that they can mirror reasonable life bands.
An estimated 1.5 million deaths occur annually as a result of household air pollution from
SFU mainly for cooking as well as winter season heating. The total disease burden,
including morbidity, is estimated at 36 million DALYs (WHO 2007).
These deaths and
DALYs arise mainly from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in young children
and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults, and to a lesser extent lung
cancer. There is also moderate evidence of increased risk of asthma, cataracts and
tuberculosis (Desai et al, 2004; Smith et al, 2004).
The presence or lack of these five factors was the determinant of the role of religion in the
given conflict. Due to the nature of this methodology these are debateable findings. For
instance one leader may declare simply ‘May God bless us and watch over us’ whereas
another may declare that ‘God calls us, his chosen people, to annihilate our enemies’. Both
are employing a religious discourse yet there is clearly a difference in severity. Measuring this
If the consumption of counterfeit goods is consistent with other forms of routine
consumption practices, it is likely that they are purchased in everyday environments
and situated within routine social contexts. Such a view is supported by the
questionnaire data. Rather than being integrated into a subcultural technical elite, the
most regular sites of purchase of counterfeit products were more mundane.
However, some focus group participants also found the use of electronic
music “distracting.” Several students who disliked the use of DJ Spooky’s music
accompanying Caligari noted being distracted by the modern drum loops and
electronic sounds, claiming that they didn’t “suit” the ﬁlm. Another student
anonymously described having seen the ﬁlm before, and feeling “far more
removed from the ﬁlm” because of the electronic music: “the experiment created
an unconscious focus on where the ﬁlm and the contemporary DJ track ‘synched’
In 2003, a man from one of the charity organizations referred Martha to Likii HIV’s Home based care group
because the support she was getting was not sustainable. Lucy Njoki, a caregiver from Likii and also a woman
living with HIV welcomed her and shared her story with other caregivers in the group. Caregivers contributed
some money to rent a house for her and ensure that she received food daily. Caregivers also referred her to the
comprehensive care unit at the district hospital where she resumed ART treatment. In 2004/2005, her health...
We predict that in 2019, Medi-Cal coverage will
increase by 1.2 to 1.6 million (under the base and
enhanced scenarios, respectively). Enrollment in
Healthy Families will decline slightly as older children
under 133 percent FPL will now qualify for Medi-Cal.
An estimated 1.8 to 2.1 million will be enrolled in the
Exchange with subsidies, while 2.1 to 2.2 million will
remain in the non-group market or be enrolled in the
Exchange without subsidies.11 Finally, the number of
uninsured will decline by 1.8 to 2.7 million people,
leaving 3.0 to 4.0 million Californians without coverage.
Nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics are three
new disciplines that will contribute to the rapid development
of functional foods. Bioinformatics is a new tool that uses
computer database technology to integrate data from
multiple, and sometimes disparate, disciplines. Already
these disciplines and tools have improved our understanding
of food science and human nutrition. Discoveries in genetics
make it possible to understand the effects of nutrients in
processes at the molecular level in the body and also the
variable effects of dietary components on each individual.
Lean thinking is not a manufacturing tactic or a cost-reduction program, but a management strategy
that is applicable to all organizations because it has to do with improving processes. All organizations
— including health care organizations — are composed of a series of processes, or sets of actions
intended to create value for those who use or depend on them (customers/patients).
The importance of fisheries in a country cannot only be measured by the contribution to
the GDP, but one must also take into consideration that fisheries resources and products
are fundamental components of human feeding and employment.
Another aspect that makes fisheries resources important is the self renewable character.
Unlike mineral resources, if the fishery resources or any other biological resources are
well managed, their duration is pratically unlimited.
Persons who are ill will be asked to defer travel so as not to spread influenza to other
areas that are pandemic free. Supply lines may also be affected by self-imposed travel
restrictions, with truckers/transporters unwilling to travel through or to infected areas.
Difficulties at border crossings may substantially affect supply lines. Consideration
should be given to purchase of products made in Canada/locally to avoid potential
supply problems due to border crossing restrictions implemented at the time of the
One might expect the eects on buyers and suppliers to be symmetric: for both the current
owner and a potential buyer of a particular used car, the increased cost of usage for the current
owner of that car if he or she keeps the car will exactly equal the increased cost of usage for
the potential buyer, if the two have similar driving habits. In other words, one might expect
an increase in gasoline prices to reduce the willingness-to-pay for a particular car by about
the same amount that it reduces a potential supplier's willingness-to-accept for that car.
Mover’s Distance (EMD) to explicitly align the volumes. In
contrast to the fixed volume-to-volume matching used in
, the space-time volumes of two videos across different
space-time locations can be matched using our ASTPM
method, making it better at coping with the large intraclass
variations within the same type of events (e.g., moving
objects in consumer videos can appear at different space-
time locations, and the background within two different
videos, even captured from the same scene, may be shifted
due to considerable camera motion).
California, like many states, is facing a large budget deficit and difficult budgetary choices. The state
legislature has made cuts to Early Care and Education (ECE)1 projected to total more than
$1.6 billion between fiscal years 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 (California Budget Project [CBP] 2011).
Since 2009, California has faced double-digit unemployment rates (California Employment
Development Department 2011) and unemployment is projected to remain at that level through
2012 (Legislative Analyst’s Office [LAO] 2010b).
Many risks that we face on a daily basis may be unavoidable, so there is an expectation
by individuals that the level of risk is being managed and reduced to safe levels
through evidence-based risk assessments and public health interventions. There has
been a growing recognition that risks need to be viewed in their public health context
to ensure that the most important risks are prioritized and addressed. Under a
broader public health imperative, risk assessments are used as an important process to
quantify the probability of harmful effects to individuals, sub-populations (eg.
The objective of this current chapter is to review the techniques whose potential to noninvasively
determine Breslow index has been studied. Basic and technical principles of each
technique will be mentioned as well as their accuracy in the determination of a factor whose
importance in the clinical management of melanoma is so important as previously
demonstrated. Currently Breslow index is measured by the anatomo-pathologist after
incisional or excisional biopsy of the suspected lesion. So why non invasive determination of
Breslow index would be of utmost clinical value?...