Mean stress effect

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  • The book "Applied Fracture Mechanics" presents a collection of articles on application of fracture mechanics methods to materials science, medicine, and engineering. In thirteen chapters, a wide range of topics is discussed, including strength of biological tissues, safety of nuclear reactor components, fatigue effects in pipelines, environmental effects on fracture among others. In addition, the book presents mathematical and computational methods underlying the fracture mechanics applications, and also developments in statistical modeling of fatigue.

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  • Introduction to “The Art of Personal Effectiveness” We all love a good quote. A good quote can do many things. It can sum up in just a few words what it takes a whole day to learn. It can deliver something that has taken someone a lifetime of experience to discover. It can make us smile with its accuracy and wisdom. It can delight us with its turn of phrase. And it can hit the spot in encapsulating something we’ve come to understand ourselves. When asked for their favourite quotations, ones that mean something to them or ones that they were...

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  • By strictest interpretation, theories of both centering and intonational meaning fail to predict the existence of pitch accented pronominals. Yet they occur felicitously in spoken discourse. To explain this, I emphasize the dual functions served by pitch accents, as markers of both propositional (semantic/pragmatic) and attentional salience.

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  • Young doctors are the future of our Society. Therefore, I am hoping to see a global network created for young gynecologists who are interested in gynecologic cancer. If young doctors from various countries start to communicate effectively and share information with each other, we can both improve and standardize cancer treatment and contribute to the well-being of women worldwide. Education for young doctors is very important because they are still pure and have a sensitivity to share experiences of all kinds.

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  • Difficulty in addressing contamination in low permeability soils may be alleviated to some degree by controlled pneumatic or hydraulic fracturing of the soil. However, engineered hydraulic fractures generally cannot be spaced more closely than about 5 feet, which means that chemical oxidants must still penetrate a substantial thickness of low permeability soil to come into contact with the contamination. Deep soil mixing with large diameter drill augers is the most effective method currently available to increase contact between adsorbed contaminants and the oxidants.

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  • Increasing physiological and psychological impairments with age does not mean that ageing is equivalent with illness, diseases or dependency. In fact, earlier studies could not explore that a type or the pathogenesis of diseases is only caused by the ageing process (Steinhagen-Thiessen & Borchelt 1996). Brody and Schneider (1986) distinguished between age-dependent and age-related diseases. Age-dependent diseases are involved in the ageing process and cause the exponentially increasing mortality risk with advanced age, for instance heart and cerebrovascular diseases.

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  • This session will be an opportunity to reflect on how development cooperation actors can best hold each other to account for commitments made on gender equality, women’s rights and the empowerment of women at sub-national, sector, national, regional and global levels.

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  • The second reason why contraception has gained importance is due to disease. As we will see at the end of this chapter,many serious diseases can be passed between people during sex. Some birth control methods are also important ways to reduce the transmission of certain diseases. Over time, various methods of birth control have been developed. Some methods are more effective than others. The most effective means of birth control is abstinence, that is, not having sexual intercourse.

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  • To supervise investment portfolio risks effectively, management may wish to periodically estimate, and report to the board of directors, the value of the portfolio in different interest rate environments. The value in each interest rate scenario, compared with the current portfolio value, illustrates the amount of portfolio price sensitivity. Sensitivity reporting is a convenient means of assuring that management has complied with the board of directors’ limits on the portfolio’s volatility.

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  • Piezoelectricity from the Greek word "piezo" means pressure electricity. Certain crystalline substances generate electric charges under mechanical stress and conversely experience a mechanical strain in the presence of an electric field. The piezoelectric effect was discovered in some naturally occurring materials in the 1880s. However it was not until the Second World War that man-made polycrystalline ceramic ma‐ terials were produced that also showed piezoelectric properties.

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  • This guide stresses the need for an effective security testing program within federal agencies. Testing serves several purposes. One, no matter how well a given system may have been developed, the nature of today’s complex systems with large volumes of code, complex internal interactions, interoperability with uncertain external components, unknown interdependencies coupled with vendor cost and schedule pressures, means that exploitable flaws will always be present or surface over time.

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