TOEIC Vocabulary / Word by Meaning / Test # 1: Q1 v. to appraise; to judge the worth or quality; to assess; to gauge
(a) grow (b) charge (c) title (d) evaluate.
Q2 n. bars of gold; bars of silver
(a) downsizing (b) bullion (c) shop (d) documentation. Q3 v. to select; to prefer; to pick; to make a choice
(a) associate (b) choose (c) disagree (d) go after
Show me the meaning of being lonely
So many words for the broken heart
It's hard to see in a crimson love
So hard to breathe
Walk with me, and maybe
Nights of light so soon become
Wild and free I could feel the sun
Your every wish will be done
They tell me...
From "Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance" to "The Motorcycle Diaries", to be a biker is to be on the road to the meaning of life. From ethics to existentialism, motorcycling raises some of life's biggest questions. What should our attitude be towards danger and death? Does riding shed any light on the nature of reality? Do we have any obligations towards the environment, humans and other animals? And can motorcycles be as much a work of art as a Michelangelo painting? Philosopher and motorcyclist Craig Bourne answers all these questions and more in this stimulating road trip through...
Bài báo này đề xuất phương pháp nhận dạng mặt người dựa trên đặc trưng Gabor kết hợp AdaBoost và k-means. Tác giả sử dụng Gabor wavelet để rút trích các đặc trưng trên ảnh tạo vectơ đặc trưng. AdaBoost cải tiến được dùng như một phương pháp làm giảm số chiều của vectơ đặc trưng trong quá trình nhận dạng.
One of the major problems of K-means is that one must use dense vectors for its centroids, and therefore it is infeasible to store such huge vectors in memory when the feature space is high-dimensional. We address this issue by using feature hashing (Weinberger et al., 2009), a dimension-reduction technique, which can reduce the size of dense vectors while retaining sparsity of sparse vectors.
This lively, engaging and witty collection of lectures brings together the renowned African and African-American scholars - Cornel West, Henry Louis Gates Jr and Wole Soyinka - to reflect on the public meaning of the iconic Nelson Mandela. Any one of these authors would have been a pleasure to read in his own right, but to have all three of them enjoined in this common intellectual effort is an enlightening experience.
This paper describes ongoing work on distributional models for word meaning in context. We abandon the usual one-vectorper-word paradigm in favor of an exemplar model that activates only relevant occurrences. On a paraphrasing task, we ﬁnd that a simple exemplar model outperforms more complex state-of-the-art models.
The "glue" approach to semantic composition in Lexical-Functional Grammar uses linear logic to assemble meanings from syntactic analyses (Dalrymple et al., 1993). It has been compurationally feasible in practice (Dalrymple et al., 1997b). Yet deduction in linear logic is known to be intractable. Even the propositional tensor fragment is NP complete(Kanovich, 1992). In this paper, we investigate what has made the glue approach computationally feasible and show how to exploit that to efficiently deduce underspecified representations. ...
This paper describes an operational system which can acquire the core meanings of words without any prior knowledge of either the category or meaning of any words it encounters. The system is given as input, a description of sequences of scenes along with sentences which describe the [EVENTS] taking place as those scenes unfold, and produces as output, a lexicon consisting of the category and meaning of each word in the input, that allows the sentences to describe the [EVENTS]. It is argued, that each of the three main components of the system, the parser, the linker and the...
This paper presents an incremental probabilistic learner that models the acquistion of syntax and semantics from a corpus of child-directed utterances paired with possible representations of their meanings. These meaning representations approximate the contextual input available to the child; they do not specify the meanings of individual words or syntactic derivations. The learner then has to infer the meanings and syntactic properties of the words in the input along with a parsing model.
Kabbalah, Science & the Meaning of Life traces the milestones of the evolution of science with which we are familiar, such as Newton’s and Einstein’s theories but goes further to present the science of Kabbalah as the basis for understanding the hidden parts of reality which scientists are now discovering. While other sciences research the definable world around us, Kabbalah teaches us how the spontaneous changes occurring within us affect our surrounding reality.
THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN undertook research, late in 1955, in the analysis of language structure for mechanical translation. Emphasis was placed on the use of the contextual structure of the sentence as a means of reducing ambiguity and on the formulation of a set of operative rules which an electronic computer could use for automatically translating Russian texts into English.
We propose in this paper a method for quantifying sentence grammaticality. The approach based on Property Grammars, a constraint-based syntactic formalism, makes it possible to evaluate a grammaticality index for any kind of sentence, including ill-formed ones. We compare on a sample of sentences the grammaticality indices obtained from PG formalism and the acceptability judgements measured by means of a psycholinguistic analysis.
Recognizing idioms in a sentence is important to sentence understanding. This paper discusses the lexical knowledge of idioms for idiom recognition. The challenges are that idioms can be ambiguous between literal and idiomatic meanings, and that they can be “transformed” when expressed in a sentence. However, there has been little research on Japanese idiom recognition with its ambiguity and transformations taken into account. We propose a set of lexical knowledge for idiom recognition.
Successful participation in dialogue as well as understanding written text requires, among others, interpretation of speciﬁcations implicitly conveyed through parallel structures. While those whose reconstruction requires insertion of a missing element, such as gapping and ellipsis, have been addressed to a certain extent by computational approaches, there is virtually no work addressing parallel structures headed by vice versa-like operators, whose reconstruction requires transformation.
This paper applies machine learning techniques to acquiring aspects of the meaning of discourse markers. Three subtasks of acquiring the meaning of a discourse marker are considered: learning its polarity, veridicality, and type (i.e. causal, temporal or additive). Accuracy of over 90% is achieved for all three tasks, well above the baselines.
Standard IR systems can process queries such as “web NOT internet”, enabling users who are interested in arachnids to avoid documents about computing. The documents retrieved for such a query should be irrelevant to the negated query term. Most systems implement this by reprocessing results after retrieval to remove documents containing the unwanted string of letters. This paper describes and evaluates a theoretically motivated method for removing unwanted meanings directly from the original query in vector models, with the same vector negation operator as used in quantum logic. ...
In this paper we present a method to group adjectives according to their meaning, as a first step towards the automatic identification of adjectival scales. We discuss the properties of adjectival scales and of groups of semantically related adjectives and how they imply sources of linguistic knowledge in text corpora. We describe how our system exploits this linguistic knowledge to compute a measure of similarity between two adjectives, using statistical techniques and without having access to any semantic information about the adjectives. ...
In one form or another, the phenomena associated with "meaning transfer" have become central issues in a lot of recent work on semantics. Speaking very roughly, we can partition approaches to the phenomenon along two dimensions, which yield four basic points of departure. In the first two, people have considered transfer in basically semantic or linguistic terms.