The Committee believes that a successful implementation of the revised Framework will provide banks and supervisors with critical experience necessary to address such challenges. The Committee understands that the IRB approach represents a point on the continuum between purely regulatory measures of credit risk and an approach that builds more fully on internal credit risk models. In principle, further movements along that continuum are foreseeable, subject to an ability to address adequately concerns about reliability, comparability, validation, and competitive equity.......
American Costumer Satisfaction Index (ACSI)
and European Customer Satisfaction Index (ECSI)
Intangible economic indicators
Conducts analyses of customer service quality in 35
separate industries, 190 companies and government
agencies on a scale of 1 to 100
Post-consumption assessment by the user about the
product or service gained
Uses expectancy confirmation-disconfirmation approach:
focuses on service comparisons with customers prior
In recent years, enormous strides have been made in the art and science of
credit risk measurement and management. Much of the energy in this area
has resulted from dissatisfaction with traditional approaches to credit risk
measurement and with the current Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
Until fairly recently most scientific data-gathering systems and industrial
control procedures were based on electromechanical devices
such as chart recorders and analogue gauges. The capability to
process and analyse data was rather limited (and in some cases error
prone) unless one had access to a minicomputer or mainframe.
Today, that situation has changed considerably. I am sure that most
potential readers of this book will be aware of the profound effect
the PC has had on the way in which engineers and scientists are able
to approach data-gathering tasks....
The Committee believes that a successful implementation of the revised Framework will provide banks and supervisors with critical experience necessary to address such challenges. The Committee understands that the IRB approach represents a point on the continuum between purely regulatory measures of credit risk and an approach that builds more fully on internal credit risk models. In principle, further movements along that continuum are foreseeable, subject to an ability to address adequately concerns about reliability, comparability, validation, and competitive equity....
The Central Bank today publishes statistics for Q1 2012 on investment funds (IFs) resident in
Ireland. Irish resident IFs expanded strongly in Q1 2012, driven by performing global equity
markets and apparent expanding investor confidence evident in new subscriptions. When
reclassifications are excluded, IFs, measured by total shares/units in issue, increased in value
to €819.8 billion at end Q1 2012, up from €768.7 billion at end Q4 2011. This increase is
accounted for by revaluations of €34.9 billion and positive net transactions of €16.2 billion. ...
Alump sum price may be called for, or a series of lump sums. This is best suited
to easily defined, relatively simple constructions, involving little below-ground
work. However, some quite large above-ground constructions are paid for by
lump sum. Sometimes a separate section of the bill for pricing allows for the
foundation work of a building to be paid for ‘on measure’. In some kinds of civil
engineering work the lump sum payment method can pose serious risks upon
a contractor, causing him to add a substantial sum to his tender.
Tumor markers may be useful in patient management in certain tumors. Response to therapy may be difficult to gauge with certainty. However, some tumors produce or elicit the production of markers that can be measured in the serum or urine and, in a particular patient, rising and falling levels of the marker are usually associated with increasing or decreasing tumor burden, respectively. Some clinically useful tumor markers are shown in Table 77-5.
Automated summarization methods can be deﬁned as “language-independent,” if they are not based on any languagespeciﬁc knowledge. Such methods can be used for multilingual summarization deﬁned by Mani (2001) as “processing several languages, with summary in the same language as input.” In this paper, we introduce MUSE, a languageindependent approach for extractive summarization based on the linear optimization of several sentence ranking measures using a genetic algorithm.
Distributional similarity has been widely used to capture the semantic relatedness of words in many NLP tasks. However, various parameters such as similarity measures must be handtuned to make it work effectively. Instead, we propose a novel approach to synonym identiﬁcation based on supervised learning and distributional features, which correspond to the commonality of individual context types shared by word pairs. Considering the integration with pattern-based features, we have built and compared ﬁve synonym classiﬁers. ...
This paper presents methods for a qualitative, unbiased comparison of lexical association measures and the results we have obtained for adjective-noun pairs and preposition-noun-verb triples extracted from German corpora. In our approach, we compare the entire list of candidates, sorted according to the particular measures, to a reference set of manually identiﬁed “true positives”. We also show how estimates for the very large number of hapaxlegomena and double occurrences can be inferred from random samples.
This paper proposes a new approach for ranking efficiency units in data envelopment analysis as a modification of the super-efficiency models developed by Tone. The new approach based on slacks-based measure of efficiency (SBM) for dealing with objective function used to classify all of the decision-making units allows the ranking of all inefficient DMUs and overcomes the disadvantages of infeasibility.
Within its Agenda 2000 reform package, the EU has introduced a new rural development policy
which streamlines rural development measures implemented in its Member States. All measures
falling under this pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) are notified under the Green
Box. These fall into two groups. Firstly, the new accompanying measures of the 1992 McSharry
reform, such as early retirement, agri-environment and afforestation, as well as the less-favoured
areas (LFA) scheme.
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is one of the most widely used statistics in
the United States. As a measure of inflation it is a key economic indicator.
It serves as a guide for the Federal Reserve Board’s monetary policy and
is an essential tool in calculating changes in the nation’s output and living standards.
It is used to determine annual cost-of-living allowances for social security
retirees and other recipients of federal payments, to index the federal income tax
system for inflation, and as the yardstick for U.S. Treasury inflation-indexed
This paper describes an approach to utilizing term weights for sentiment analysis tasks and shows how various term weighting schemes improve the performance of sentiment analysis systems. Previously, sentiment analysis was mostly studied under data-driven and lexicon-based frameworks. Such work generally exploits textual features for fact-based analysis tasks or lexical indicators from a sentiment lexicon. We propose to model term weighting into a sentiment analysis system utilizing collection statistics, contextual and topicrelated characteristics as well as opinionrelated properties.
Dependency analysis of natural language has gained importance for its applicability to NLP tasks. Non-projective structures are common in dependency analysis, therefore we need ﬁne-grained means of describing them, especially for the purposes of machine-learning oriented approaches like parsing. We present an evaluation on twelve languages which explores several constraints and measures on non-projective structures. We pursue an edge-based approach concentrating on properties of individual edges as opposed to properties of whole trees. ...
In this paper I propose a generalization of lexical association techniques that is intended to facilitate statistical discovery of facts involving word classes rather than individual words. Although defining association measures over classes (as sets of words) is straightforward in theory, making direct use of such a definition is impractical because there are simply too many classes to consider. Rather than considering all possible classes, I propose constraining the set of possible word classes by using a broad-coverage lexical/conceptual hierarchy [Miller, 1990]. ...
We evaluate measures of contextual ﬁtness on the task of detecting real-word spelling errors. For that purpose, we extract naturally occurring errors and their contexts from the Wikipedia revision history. We show that such natural errors are better suited for evaluation than the previously used artiﬁcially created errors. In particular, the precision of statistical methods has been largely over-estimated, while the precision of knowledge-based approaches has been under-estimated.
The construct of adaptive behavior: Its conceptualization, measurement, and use in the field of intellectual disability updates the current conceptualization, measurement, and use of the adaptive behavior construct.