Thermal noise from optical coatings is a growing area of concern, and overcoming limits
to the sensitivity of high-precision measurements by thermal noise is one of the greatest
challenges faced by experimental physicists.
In this timely book, internationally renowned scientists and engineers examine our
current theoretical and experimental understanding. Beginning with the theory of thermal
noise in mirrors and substrates, subsequent chapters discuss the technology of depositing
coatings and state-of-the-art dielectric coating techniques used in precision measurement.
This paper addresses the issue of POS tagger evaluation. Such evaluation is usually performed by comparing the tagger output with a reference test corpus, which is assumed to be error-free. Currently used corpora contain noise which causes the obtained performance to be a distortion of the real value. We analyze to what extent this distortion may invalidate the comparison between taggers or the measure of the improvement given by a new system. The main conclusion is that a more rigorous testing experimentation setting/designing is needed to reliably evaluate and compare tagger accuracies.
The final article in this section presents a modification to the Green’s function
approach for modeling acoustic pressure, where the use of conformal mapping is
replaced by a group of bound vortices. The author shows that the approach is readily
extended to three dimensions. The method is discussed in the context of aircraft noise.
Linear Prediction Modelling of Speech Linear predictive models are widely used in speech processing applications such as low–bit–rate speech coding in cellular telephony, speech enhancement and speech recognition. Speech is generated by inhaling air into the lungs, and then exhaling it through the vibrating glottis cords and the vocal tract. The random, noise-like, air flow from the lungs is spectrally shaped and amplified by the vibrations of the glottal cords and the resonance of the vocal tract.
Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering started out being a third edition to
my previous book Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems, but it
turned out to be much more than that, hence, the title change. Nine of the
original twelve chapters were completely rewritten. In addition, there are six
new chapters, plus two new appendices, with over 600 pages of new and revised
material (including 342 new figures).
The aim of this book is to provide an overview of recent developments in Kalman filter theory and their applications in engineering and scientific fields. The book is divided into 24 chapters and organized in five blocks corresponding to recent advances in Kalman filtering theory, applications in medical and biological sciences, tracking and positioning systems, electrical engineering and, finally, industrial processes and communication networks.
NOISE AND DISTORTION
2.1 Introduction 2.2 White Noise 2.3 Coloured Noise 2.4 Impulsive Noise 2.5 Transient Noise Pulses 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 Thermal Noise Shot Noise Electromagnetic Noise Channel Distortions Modelling Noise
oise can be defined as an unwanted signal that interferes with the communication or measurement of another signal. A noise itself is a signal that conveys information regarding the source of the noise. For example, the noise from a car engine conveys information regarding the state of the engine.
In the past, environmental goods and services were seen as having limited economic importance.
Now, environmental issues and activities pervade every aspect of our economic life and performance
and are subject to challenging national and international targets, strict monitoring regimes and
ongoing discussion and debate in the media. As understanding of environmental challenges has
grown, so too has appreciation of the size of the market and the associated business opportunities.
The subject of ingress on the coaxial transport (either
accidental or intentional) is of the largest concern when
considering the transportation of telephony services on a
Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) system. With a well-maintained
coax plant that is continually checked for compliance
with FCC standards for cumulative leakage index, return
path ingress should not present a problem. However, it
must be assumed that no system is impervious to strong
RF fields that are in close proximity to the telephony
Image registration is an emerging topic in image processing with many applications
in medical imaging, picture and movie processing. The classical problem of image
registration is concerned with finding an appropriate transformation between two
data sets. This fuzzy definition of registration requires a mathematical modeling and
in particular a mathematical specification of the terms appropriate transformations
and correlation between data sets. Depending on the type of application, typically
Euler, rigid, plastic, elastic deformations are considered.
In this paper we present the implementation of a digital lock-in amplifier (LIA) completely based on Labview with a general-purpose data acquisition board (or a high quality sound card) and a high-gain low-noise amplifier. The signal analysis is processed by the software. We describe some characteristics of the LIA including output voltage vs. frequency and output phase vs. noise. The LIA can be used to measure the small signals, even in presence of broadband noise which is several times greater than the signal itself. Since the signal processing takes place on the computer, ...
Theoretically the Kalman Filter is an estimator for what is called the linear-quadratic problem, which is the problem of estimating the instantaneous ``state'' (a concept that will be made more precise in the next chapter) of a linear dynamic system perturbed by white noiseÐby using measurements linearly related to the state but corrupted by white noise. The resulting estimator is statistically optimal with respect to any quadratic function of estimation error
The oscillator in communication and measurement systems, be they radio, coaxial cable, microwave, satellite, radar or optical fibre, defines the reference signal onto which modulation is coded and later demodulated. The flicker and phase noise in such oscillators are central in setting the ultimate systems performance limits of modern communications, radar and timing systems. These oscillators are therefore required to be of the highest quality for the particular application as they provide the reference for data modulation and demodulation. ...
Micro-optomechatronics is a technology that fuses optics, electronics, and
mechanics by the MEMS technology. This technology is used primarily
for information and telecommunications equipment. This book explains
the basis and the application of micro-optomechatronics. In information
operation, mechanical movements are not required. Use of movement in
space, however, often simplifies systems structure and increases the signalto-
noise ratio of transducers remarkably over a system constructed only
with solid-state components.
In real life, there is always some kind of noise present in the observations. Noise
can correspond to actual physical noise in the measuring devices, or to inaccuracies
of the model used. Therefore, it has been proposed that the independent component
analysis (ICA) model should include a noise term as well. In this chapter, we consider
different methods for estimating the ICA model when noise is present.
Simkon Poisson (1781-1840) developed the probability distribution that describes photodetector noise.
A photodetector is a device that measures photon flux or optical power by converting the energy of the absorbed photons into a measurable form.
NOISE AND ITS CONTROL
David A. Towers, RE. Senior Consultant Harris Miller Miller & Hanson Inc. Lexington, Massachusetts Erich K. Bender, Ph.D. Divisional Vice President Paul J. Remington, Ph.D. Principal Engineer Eric E. Ungar, P.E., Ph.D. Chief Consulting Engineer Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts
45.1 INTRODUCTION / 45.1 45.2 NOISE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS / 45.2 45.3 NOISE EFFECTS AND STANDARDS / 45.15 45.4 NOISE CONTROL/45.18 REFERENCES / 45.37
Noise is unwanted audible sound.
EXTENSIONS AND RELATED METHODS
Independent Component Analysis. Aapo Hyv¨ rinen, Juha Karhunen, Erkki Oja a Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBNs: 0-471-40540-X (Hardback); 0-471-22131-7 (Electronic)
In real life, there is always some kind of noise present in the observations. Noise can correspond to actual physical noise in the measuring devices, or to inaccuracies of the model used. Therefore, it has been proposed that the independent component analysis (ICA) model should include a noise term as well.