Measuring complexity

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  • Up-to-date information about customer satisfaction is important for successful management of complex projects. The importance of customer satisfaction is emphasized in the case of projectbased organizations, where a customer often plays an integral role in the project delivery process. Turner and Keegan (2001, p. 256) elegantly define project-based organization as an organization in which:

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  • The effect of chitosan, glucose and chitosan–glucose complex (CGC) on the microbial and postharvest quality of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushroom stored at 4 ± 1 C for 16 days was investigated. Mushroom weight loss, respiration rate, firmness, ascorbic acid, total soluble solids, microbial and sensory quality were measured. The results indicate that treatment with CGC coating maintained tissue firmness, inhibited increase of respiration rate, reduced microorganism counts, e.g., pseudomonads, yeasts and moulds, compared to uncoated control mushroom.

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  • This title presents the general principles of instrumentation processes. It explains the theoretical analysis of physical phenomena used by standard sensors and transducers to transform a physical value into an electrical signal. The pre-processing of these signals through electronic circuits – amplification, signal filtering and analog-to-digital conversion – is then detailed, in order to provide useful basic information. Attention is then given to general complex systems.

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  • Globalization has perhaps been the notion most widely used and debated by the social sciences in the last decade of the twentieth century and in the first years of the twenty-first. Subject to diverse and sometimes conflicting interpretations, the concept has also been the target—as shown in Chap. 1—of harsh criticisms from authors who have contested its real meaningfulness and extent.

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  • Morphological lexica are often implemented on top of morphological paradigms, corresponding to different ways of building the full inflection table of a word. Computationally precise lexica may use hundreds of paradigms, and it can be hard for a lexicographer to choose among them. To automate this task, this paper introduces the notion of a smart paradigm. It is a metaparadigm, which inspects the base form and tries to infer which low-level paradigm applies. If the result is uncertain, more forms are given for discrimination.

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  • The increasing complexity of summarization systems makes it difficult to analyze exactly which modules make a difference in performance. We carried out a principled comparison between the two most commonly used schemes for assigning importance to words in the context of query focused multi-document summarization: raw frequency (word probability) and log-likelihood ratio.

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  • In an effort to develop measures of discourse levelmanagementstrategies,this study examines a measure of the degree to which decisionmaking interactions consist of sequences of utterance functions that are linked in a decisionmaking routine. The measure is applied to 100 dyadic interactions elicited in both face-to-face and computer-mediated environments with systematic variation of task complexity and message-window size. Every utterance in the interactions is coded according to a system that identifies decision-makmg functions and other routine functions of utterances. ...

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  • It is remarkable that the pathological state of human soft tissues highly correlates with static and low-frequency mechanical properties, particularly shear elasticity (e.g., Sumi, 2005d). Accordingly, we have been developing ultrasonic (US)-strain measurement-based one- dimensional (1D) (Sumi et al., 1993, 1995a, 2010f; Sumi, 1999b, 2005d, 2008a, 2010d; Sumi & Matsuzawa, 2007b), 2D (Sumi et al., 1993, 1995a; Sumi, 1999c, 2005d, 2006b, 2007g, 2008a, 2008c, 2010d) and 3D (Sumi, 1999c, 2005d, 2006b, 2007g, 2010d.

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  • A Kolmogorov Complexity Approach for Measuring Attack Path Complexity includes Motivation, The Kolmogorov Complexity Method (KCM), The K-step Capability Accumulation Metric (KCA), Applying KCM to KCA and something else.

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  • Chapter 12: Measurement scales. This chapter covers procedures that will help students understand measurement scales so that they can select or design measures that are appropriate. The chapter focuses on measuring complex constructs like attitudes.

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  • At the beginning, specialists tried to diagnose the stage of periodontal disease depending on the relation between the clinical appearances and the presence of some specific cell populations or specific matrix components (Havemose-Poulsen & Holmstrup, 1997; Romanos et al., 1993).

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  • The system of units used in engineering and science is the Système International d’Unités (International system of units), usually abbreviated to SI units, and is based on the metric system. This was introduced in 1960 and is now adopted by the majority of countries as the offi cial system of measurement.

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  • This paper outlines some examples of the ways in which these measures have been undertaken at the enterprise level and the accreditation framework within which these are often established. It also proposes the idea that it may be useful to extend satisfaction measurement from a focus on the enterprise to that of the destination. This is a much more complex task that at the individual enterprise level but may be worth the effort as destinations compete for market share.

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  • arranged according to alphabetical order. Names of scientists and/or family names are in all capital letters. However, when used adjectively (e.g., Mendelian) or as a unit of measure (e.g., Ångström), only the first letter is capitalized. Explanations to a given term may be more or less extensive. Several definitions have simply been separated by a semicolon. Terms that are either very general in nature or self-explanatory have been avoided. Alternate names of terms have been given within the definition.

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  • Traditionally supply chain management has meant factories, assembly lines, warehouses, transportation vehicles, and time sheets. Modern supply chain management is a highly complex, multidimensional problem set with virtually endless number of variables for optimization. An Internet enabled supply chain may have just-in-time delivery, precise inventory visibility, and up-to-the-minute distribution-tracking capabilities.

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  • Electrochemistry has been undergoing significant transformations in the last few decades. It is now the province of academics interested only in measuring thermodynamic properties of solutions and of industrialists using electrolysis or manufacturing batteries, with a huge gap between them. It has become clear that these, apparently distinct subjects, alongside others, have a common ground and that they have grown towards each other, particularly as a result of research into the rates of electrochemical processes....

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  • Difficult to measure accurately and deal with effectively, organic pollutants continue to be a major hazard in the environment. Significantly expanded, the second edition of Organic Pollutants: An Ecotoxicological Perspective describes the mechanistic basis of ecotoxicology, using major groups of pollutants as illustrative examples, and explores the problem of complex mixtures of chemicals.

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  • The advent of novel materials for electronics, optoelectronics and nanoelectronics holds the promise for new microelectronic device designs and applications across all fields of science and technology. Furthermore, the increasing sophistication of fabrication processes and techniques used in the semiconductor industry has resulted in the ability to produce circuits of greater complexity at remarkably reduced costs, a trend which has been continuing over the past half-century.

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  • The technique can be applied for chlorophyll level monitoring in basic photosynthesis research, agriculture, horticulture, and forestry. Abiotic stress (water deficit, salinity, heat, heavy metals soil contamination, intense light, etc) affects significantly crop growth and yield in agricultural areas all over the world. Thus, it is imperative to study their effect upon the crops and discriminate among abiotic stresses using new noninvasive and nondestructive remote sensing precision diagnostic techniques.

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  • The need for more rigorous and systematic research in public administration has grown as the complexity of problems in government and nonprofit organizations has increased. This book describes and explains the use of research methods that will strengthen the research efforts of those solving government and nonprofit problems. This book is aimed primarily at those studying research methods in masters and doctoral level courses in curricula that concern the public and nonprofit sector.

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