Measuring concentration

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  • Dependency analysis of natural language has gained importance for its applicability to NLP tasks. Non-projective structures are common in dependency analysis, therefore we need fine-grained means of describing them, especially for the purposes of machine-learning oriented approaches like parsing. We present an evaluation on twelve languages which explores several constraints and measures on non-projective structures. We pursue an edge-based approach concentrating on properties of individual edges as opposed to properties of whole trees. ...

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  • Automatic extraction of collocations from large corpora has been the focus of many research efforts. Most approaches concentrate on improving and combining known lexical association measures. In this paper, we describe a genetic programming approach for evolving new association measures, which is not limited to any specific language, corpus, or type of collocation. Our preliminary experimental results show that the evolved measures outperform three known association measures.

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  • In recent years, rice straw open burning (RSOB) activity has commonly occurred after the harvest in the countryside of Hanoi. This activity has caused negative impacts on air quality, especially it emits a large amount of black carbon (BC), a short lived climate pollutant (SLCP). As the other SLCPs , BC directly affects human health and ecosystem. This paper presents the results of measured BC concentrations in RSOB season in Lai Yen commune, Hoai Duc district in Hanoi.

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  • This study was performed to develop software sensorsto predict the BOD5 of river water and wastewater. The software sensors were based on the multiple-regression analysis using the dissolved organic carbon(DOC) concentration, UV light absorbance at 254nm and synchronous fluorescence spectra. River water samples and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)effluents were collected at 1-hour interval to evaluatethe feasibility of the software sensors.

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  • Organic carbon concentrations can be reduced by enhanced coagulation, granular activated carbon or membrane filtration, but this fact can also lead to increased in brominated THMs (Black et al, 1996.). A combination of coagulation, ozonation, and biofiltration can effectively reduce trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potential (Chaiket et al, 2002.). Natural organic matter (NOM), the main precursor of DBPs, can also be removed by media filters coated with iron oxide

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  • The immediate reason for the creation of this book has been the advent of Basel II. This has forced many institutions with loan portfolios into building risk models, and, as a consequence, a need has arisen to have these models validated both internally and externally. What is surprising is that there is very little written that could guide consultants in carrying out these validations. This book aims to fill that gap.

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  • From its inception nearly 30 years ago, the optical subdiscipline now referred to as nonimaging optics, has experienced dramatic growth. The term nonimaging optics is concerned with applications where imaging formation is not important but where effective and efficient collection , concentration, transport and distribution of light energy is - i.e. solar energy conversion, signal detection, illumination optics, measurement and testing. This book will incorporate the substantial developments of the past decade in this field.

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  • This book proposes a framework for a national-scale program to monitor changes in mercury concentrations in the environment following the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions. The book is the product of efforts initiated at a workshop held in Pensacola, Florida, in September 2003, involving more than 30 experts in the fields of atmospheric mercury transport and deposition, mercury cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs and wildlife.

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  • Lichens have been used to study air pollution chemistry in national parks and forests since the 1980s (Figures 1 and 2). There have also been a few lichen studies on national wildlife refuges. Most of the studies have been floristic studies, reports of baseline concentrations of elements in lichen tissues and, occasionally, trends in these concentrations. Figure 1 shows park and refuge locations with tissue chemistry data. USGS Biological Resources Division maintains a web site listing lichens known from each of the national parks shown on the map (http://www.ies.wisc.

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  • First, the concentrated decision rights within the firms allow them to operate in greater secrecy. A politician may desire more secrecy in order to maintain a reputation of integrity. The firms also prefer operating in secret in order to discourage entry by competitors. Second, compared to a hired manager in a widely held firm, a controlling owner is more secure in his position in the firm and thus has more credibility on which to trade favors with the government.

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  • Patterns of particle emission are different from those of the other pollutants included in the first phase of the EU Framework Directive because of their extreme diversity of origin and source, both primary and secondary, natural and anthropogenic, and there are significant differences in levels between Member States and regions within states. The limited amount of reliable PM10 data makes it difficult to establish a comprehensive overview of PM10 concentrations and trends in Member States.

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  • Diabetes represents a major threat to public health with alarmingly rising trends of incidence and severity in recent years, as it appears to correlate closely with emerging patterns of nutrition/diet and behavior/exercise worldwide. The concentration of blood glucose in healthy human subjects is about 90 mg/dl and defines the state of normoglycaemia. Significant and prolonged deviations from this level may give rise to numerous pathologies with serious and extensive clinical impact that is increasingly recognized by current medical practice....

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  • Smart-home technology may give the nursing personnel security in that they will be warned when dangers occur in other parts of the house. The result is that the nursing personnel can concentrate entirely on one person at a time. More time may in this way be spent on human care, instead of control routines. Altered routines lead to less stress and less exhaustion for nurses. This will in the long run have a positive effect on the occupiers. Elderly people often have objections to ICT. Ignorance is often a decisive reason. Information and knowledge about ICT will be important in...

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  • Most interesting was the discovery that cytochrome P450 aromatase, which is capable of converting androgens into estrogens, is present in the testis [25–39]. During this same period of discovery, others were using the radioim- munoassay to identify steroids present in body fluids and estrogen concentrations were found to be relatively high in seminal and rete testis plasma [40–48]. Thus, up to the 1990's it appears that most scientific inquiry into estro- gen's presence in the male remained a curiosity, as well as a worry that estrogen exposure during development was harmful.

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  • Accurate network trac measurement is required for ac- counting, bandwidth provisioning and detecting DoS at- tacks. These applications see the trac as a collection of flows they need to measure. As link speeds and the number of flows increase, keeping a counter for each flow is too ex- pensive (using SRAM) or slow (using DRAM). The current state-of-the-art methods (Cisco's sampled NetFlow) which log periodically sampled packets are slow, inaccurate and resource-intensive.

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  • Endocrine disruptors function by: (i) Mimicking the action of a naturally-produced hormone, such as estrogen or testosterone, thereby setting off similar chemical reactions in the body; (ii) Blocking hormone receptors in cells, thereby preventing the action of normal hormones; or (iii) Affecting the synthesis, transport, metabolism and excretion of hormones, thus altering the concentrations of natural hormones.

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  • Temporal variations in indoor VOC concentrations in the house likely were affected by changes in the sources with age and in the house parameters, principally air change rate, temperature and relative humidity. Air change rates in the house, which was operated at a single defined condition for all the sampling periods, were affected by wind speed and temperature conditions. At low wind speed conditions (wind speed

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  • Further, solid matrices that are not amenable to the use of a coring technique should be collected in such a way as to preserve their integrity. Transferring of these solids with spatulas or similar devices into sampling containers is discouraged as this disrupts the sample pore spaces and greatly increases the sample surface area available for volatilization. For soil piles, fresh (unexposed), soil at an adequate depth (representative of concentrations from the interior of the pile) should be sampled.

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  • Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) is a proline-specific oligopepti-dase with a reported effect on learning and memory in dif-ferent rat model systems. Using the astroglioma cell line U343,PEP expression was reduced by an antisense technique. Measuring different second-messenger concen-trations revealed an inverse correlation between inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] concentration and PEP expression in the generated antisense cell lines. However,no effect on cAMP generation was observed.

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  • This volume has a simple aim: to provide researchers and analysts with a step-bystep practical guide to the measurement of a variety of aspects of health equity. Each chapter includes worked examples and computer code. We hope that these guides, and the easy-to-implement computer routines contained in them, will stimulate yet more analysis in the fi eld of health equity, especially in developing countries.

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