Measuring employment

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  • HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT BY PRIVATE EMPLOYERS IN BLAIR COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA, AS MEASURED A one standard deviation (0.28) increase in the choice index corresponds with a reduction in mean scores of only about four points, about one-eighth of an MSA-level standard deviation. Moreover, in some alternative specifications not reported here, the coefficient estimate is statistically insignificant, though still negative.

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  • This paper presents three methods that can be used to recognize paraphrases. They all employ string similarity measures applied to shallow abstractions of the input sentences, and a Maximum Entropy classifier to learn how to combine the resulting features. Two of the methods also exploit WordNet to detect synonyms and one of them also exploits a dependency parser. We experiment on two datasets, the MSR paraphrasing corpus and a dataset that we automatically created from the MTC corpus. Our system achieves state of the art or better results. ...

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  • We introduce the possibility of combining lexical association measures and present empirical results of several methods employed in automatic collocation extraction. First, we present a comprehensive summary overview of association measures and their performance on manually annotated data evaluated by precision-recall graphs and mean average precision. Second, we describe several classification methods for combining association measures, followed by their evaluation and comparison with individual measures. ...

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  • Chapter 27 - Unemployment and the demand for labor. In this chapter you will learn: How economists measure employment and unemployment? How minimum wage rates and unionization can cause unemployment? Why there is a natural rate of unemployment? Why there is a cyclical component of unemployment?

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  • The focus in this book is on the study of market risk from a quantitative point of view. The emphasis is on presenting commonly used state-of-the-art quantitative techniques used in finance for the management of market risk and demonstrate their use employing the principal two mathematical programming languages, R and Matlab. All the code in the book can be downloaded from the book’s website at www.financialrisk forecasting.com

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  • The Conditions of Contract prepared by FIDIC have for many years had no rival as the standard form of choice for use in the international construc-tion industry. Traditionally in the standard FIDIC forms the Engineer was given an authoritative role, enabling him to make informed judgements concerning the conduct and execution of projects with a large measure of independence from the Employer. From time to time FIDIC updated these standard forms, continuing to maintain the traditional role of the Engineer, culminating in the 4 th Edition 1987 (reprinted 1992)....

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  • Written by two foremost researchers in the field, this book studies the local times of Markov processes by employing isomorphism theorems that relate them to certain associated Gaussian processes. It builds to this material through self-contained but harmonized 'mini-courses' on the relevant ingredients, which assume only knowledge of measure-theoretic probability. The streamlined selection of topics creates an easy entrance for students and for experts in related fields.

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  • Though there may be some controversy about the relative importance of financial incentives in explaining trends in retirement in the U.S., the larger part of the European studies appear to more conclusive 1 . Most European studies point at strong incentive effects from Social Security and Early Retirement schemes. This may be due to the strong disincentive effects that characterise most of these European systems....

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  • Agriculture is also a significant source of economic growth. In developing countries, agriculture generates on average 29 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) and employs 65 percent of the labour force. About two thirds of the world’s agricultural value added is produced in developing countries. At the same time, agriculture also plays an important role in transforming and urbanized economies, where industries and services linked to agriculture account for more than 30 percent of GDP (ibid.).

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  • Survey research is a thriving industry worldwide. Rossi et al. (1983) estimated the gross income of the industry in the United States alone to be roughly $5 billion, employing 60,000 persons. There are no current estimates, but the market for survey work has only continued to grow in the last two decades. Accompanying this growth are revolutionary breakthroughs in survey methodology. The field of cognitive psychology has dramatically changed how survey researchers approach the public to request participation in surveys, and how they design questionnaires and interpret survey findings....

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  • Survey research is a thriving industry worldwide. Rossi et al. (1983) estimated the gross income of the industry in the United States alone to be roughly $5 billion, employing 60,000 persons. There are no current estimates, but the market for survey work has only continued to grow in the last two decades. Accompanying this growth are revolutionary breakthroughs in survey methodology. The field of cognitive psychology has dramatically changed how survey researchers approach the public to request participation in surveys, and how they design questionnaires and interpret survey findings....

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  • Targets also move dramatically over time. SME development policies in Western Europe, for example, focused on employment creation in the late 1980s and early 1990s. By the end of the century the emphasis had changed to international competitiveness and innovation. As a result, policy targets moved towards technology issues and creation of an enterprise culture. In transition economies a major focus has been upon creating an enabling environment for the market economy.

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  • The DSS will enable examination of existing conditions, forecasting of future conditions, and simulation of alternatives that will be ecologically sustaining and socially desired. The DSS will address watershed, water quality, water quantity, groundwater and ecosystem restoration needs at the small watershed, major watershed, tributary river, and main stem Minnesota River reach levels of spatial scale. The DSS will enable forecasting future conditions.

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  • A third way to define power is in terms of the ability to structure an environment of choice, to determine the “rules of the game” of some sphere of human activity. Also called structural power, this notion focuses on how individuals or groups of individuals influence “regimes” –sets of rules, norms, procedures, and institutions in a particular area. An example of structural power would be the ability of the Motion Picture Association to prevent government censorship of movies by adopting a variety of self- regulatory measures (such as voluntary ratings schemes)....

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  • Founded in 1968, was part of Foster Wheeler until 1989. Now subsidiary of DuPont. Located in Parsippany, New Jersey Employing about 65 people Worldwide Supplier of Technologies for Controls of Particulate, SOX and NOX emissions. Specializing in reduction of Oil Refinery Emissions. More systems installed and operating than ALL other competitors “COMBINED” Offering a wide range of solutions to better serve our customers Certified ISO 9001-2000

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  • The perception of threat, or actual occurrence of conflict, is necessary for the initiation of conflict prevention or management measures, and hence it is essential to address the concept of conflict before exploring how to prevent and manage such occurrences. The first step is to understand what a conflict is made up by exactly. The starting point for this paper is the traditional definitions of conflicts (presented below), according to which a conflict is the result of opposing interests involving scarce resources, goal divergence and frustration.

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  • If the initial target is set as a result of competitive tendering, then the employer may feel some assurance that he is obtaining ‘value for money’. But if the target is negotiated or later has to be varied, then the employer may feel that the contractor’s knowledge of his intended methods and costs may enable him to add a margin in the target estimate to safeguard his position. This means that it is improbable that the target cost will ever be lower than the contractor’s privately estimated bottom line price....

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  • In the student market this will be read as ‘academic reputation plus employability’, a position with appeal today but even greater appeal in a post-2012 funding environment. It is also sustainable, as high institutional costs and high fees will not be possible without high quality; although investment in people, IT and (later) buildings will be needed to get us there.

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  • It is not impossible that in the minds of some persons the idea of employing gentle measures in the management and training of children may seem to imply the abandonment of the principle of authority, as the basis of the parental government, and the substitution of some weak and inefficient system of artifice and manoeuvring in its place. To suppose that the object of this work is to aid in effecting such a substitution as that, is entirely to mistake its nature and design.

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  • Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems continuously mea- sure air pressure inside all tires of passenger cars, trucks, and multipurpose passenger vehicles, and alert drivers if any tire is signicantly underinated. While both direct and indirect measurement technologies exist, only direct measurement has the measurement sensitivity required by the TREAD Act and is thus the only one in produc- tion. A direct measurement system uses battery-powered pressure sensors inside each tire to measure tire pres- sure and can typically detect any loss greater than 1.45 psi [40].

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