Magnetism often has a slight overtone of being mysterious. This is probably
caused by the surprisingly strong forces between magnets which everybody can experience
with magnetic toys, magnet boards, or similar objects. A strange effect is
the unique ability of magnetic fields to penetrate many substances without any attenuation.
Though the physical basis of magnetism is well explored, the outsider
usually does not know very much about the details and sometimes tends to overestimate
the real possibilities provided by magnetism.
The field of medical imaging is advancing at a rapid pace. Imaging modalities like
x-ray radiography, x-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, nuclear imaging,
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and optical imaging have been used in biology
and medicine to visualize anatomical structures as large as the lung and liver and
as small as molecules. Ultrasound is considered the most cost-effective among them.
It is used routinely in hospitals and clinics for diagnosing a variety of diseases.
The West Pearl Queen reservoir project also used
soil gas surveys to detect PFC tracers that were
injected into the reservoir with the CO2. Soil gas
sampling was conducted before and after the CO2
injection by using capillary tubes and adsorbent
packets for the tracers. Brookhaven National
Laboratory (BNL) supplied the tracers and
performed the tracer concentration analysis (Wells
et al., 2007).
Near-Surface Geophysics – The use of
magnetometers is another possible near-surface
Today, research and technology play a decisive role for the European food
sector for the development of new products as well as for improved safety
measures. In July 2000, DG RTD requested a study on potential future
European research priorities in food technology and food safety from the
Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Joint Research Centre.
The study design comprised the involvement of external expertise from
industry as well as from academia: The results of the study were derived from
two experts workshops held in Sevilla at the IPTS in December 2000 and May
Summary. In this introductory chapter, the definition and history of tribology and their industrial
significance and origins and significance of an emerging field of micro/nanotribology
are described. Next, various measurement techniques used in micro/nanotribological and
micro/nanomechanical studies are described. The interest in micro/nanotribology field grew
from magnetic storage devices and latter the applicability to emerging field micro/nanoelectromechanical
systems (MEMS/NEMS) became clear.
The first edition of the
Handbook of Micro/Nanotribology
was published in the Spring of 1995. Soon after
its publication, the first-of-a-kind monograph became a reference book for the novice, as well as experts,
in the emerging field of micro/nanotribology. Since the field is evolving very rapidly, we felt that the
monograph needed a second edition.
The second edition is totally revised. The scope of the first edition has been expanded. In the first
part, Basic Studies, two new chapters on AFM Instrumentation and Tips and Surface Forces and Adhesion
have been added.
This article (see also [1, 2]) considers new methods for multiple electromagnetic source localization
using sensors whose output is a vector corresponding to the complete electric andmagneticfields at the
sensor. These sensors, which will be called vector sensors, can consist for example of two orthogonal
triads of scalar sensors that measure the electric and magnetic field components. Our approach is in
contrast to other articles in this chapter that employ sensor arrays in which the output of each sensor
is a scalar corresponding, for example, to a scalar function of the electric field....
A great deal has transpired since the final reprint of the previous edition of
Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology appeared in 1987. LEYBOLD has in
the meantime introduced a number of new developments in the field. These
include the dry-running ALL×ex chemicals pump, the COOLVAC-FIRST
cryopump systems with quick regeneration feature, turbomolecular pumps
with magnetic bearings, the A-Series vacuum gauges, the TRANSPECTOR
and XPR mass spectrometer transmitters, leak detectors in the UL series,
and the ECOTEC 500 leak detector for refrigerants and many other gases.
The first is Faraday’s law of induction, the second is Amp`ere’s law as amended by
Maxwell to include the displacement current ∂D/∂t, the third and fourth are Gauss’ laws
for the electric and magnetic fields.
The displacement current term ∂D/∂t in Amp`ere’s law is essential in predicting the
existence of propagating electromagnetic waves. Its role in establishing charge conservation
is discussed in Sec. 1.7.
Eqs. (1.1.1) are in SI units.
n this book some recent advances in development of photodetectors and photodetection systems for specific applications are included. In the first section of the book nine different types of photodetectors and their characteristics are presented. Next, some theoretical aspects and simulations are discussed. The last eight chapters are devoted to the development of photodetection systems for imaging, particle size analysis, transfers of time, measurement of vibrations, magnetic field, polarization of light, and particle energy.
Güttinger et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:253 http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/6/1/253
Transport through a strongly coupled graphene quantum dot in perpendicular magnetic field
Johannes Güttinger1*, Christoph Stampfer1,2, Tobias Frey1, Thomas Ihn1 and Klaus Ensslin1
Abstract We present transport measurements on a strongly coupled graphene quantum dot in a perpendicular magnetic field.
Magnetotelluric surveys (soundings) are a naturalsource
electromagnetic (EM) geophysical method
that utilizes variations in the Earth’s magnetic field
to image subsurface structures. A magnetotelluric
sounding was attempted at Weyburn but has not
produced results. Consequently, a final assessment
of its utility is not available (Monea et al., 2008).
Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is a
technique of imaging subsurface electrical
conductivity. When deployed in time-lapse mode,
it is capable of detecting conductivity changes
caused by the injection of CO2.
Velocity encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (VE-PC MRI) is another
imaging technique used to noninvasively measure Achilles tendon strain and changes in its
force-displacement relationship concomitant with chronic unloading and subsequent
recuperation. This technique will be reviewed in terms of its ability to quantify the Achilles
tendon Young’s modulus (MPa) from a stress-strain curve.