Measuring nutrition

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  • Nutrition is one of those subjects which comes up every day in general practice—or should do—yet in most undergraduate medical schools it is crowded out by the big clinical specialities and high technology procedures. It is for subjects like nutrition that the British Medical Journal’s ABC series is extremely useful. This book was started when Dr Stephen Lock, previous editor of the BMJ asked me to write a series of weekly articles for an imagined general practitioner, in an unfashionable provincial town who had been taught almost no nutrition at medical school.

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  • Nutritional Status Assessment Full nutritional status assessment is reserved for seriously ill patients and those at very high nutritional risk when the cause of malnutrition is still uncertain after initial clinical evaluation and dietary assessment. It involves multiple dimensions, including documentation of dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, biochemical measurements of blood and urine, clinical examination, health history, and functional status. For further discussion of nutritional assessment, see Chap. 72.

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  • Anthropometrics Anthropometric measurements provide information on body muscle mass and fat reserves. The most practical and commonly used measurements are body weight, height, triceps skinfold (TSF), and mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC). Body weight is one of the most useful nutritional parameters to follow in patients who are acutely or chronically ill. Unintentional weight loss during illness often reflects loss of lean body mass (muscle and organ tissue), especially if it is rapid and not caused by diuresis.

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  • For some doctors in affluent countries the first question about prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) nowadays is whether to write a prescription for one of the statins (simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, etc) which inhibit an early step of cholesterol biosynthesis in the body (see p 7). Tables are available to show whether the 5- or 10-year risk justifies the cost of long term statin medication, but the relation of diet and CHD is still of primary importance for the majority of people. What we eat is bound up with the aetiology of CHD.

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  • Starting in the spring of 2009, a fast recovery in global equities and a rise in house values in many economies (the euro area and Japan are exceptions) were accompanied by a reduction in corporate bond spreads and other risk premia (Graphs II.1 and III.2, top panels), though some risk measures have meanwhile risen again in the context of the Greek sovereign debt crisis. Reported VaR figures show that risk as measured by potential losses from banks’ trading positions remains high (Graph III.2, bottom left-hand panel).

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  • The Subcommittee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women (BCNH subcommittee) was established in 1995 through a grant administered by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command as part of the Defense Women's Health Research Program.

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  • Diabetes represents a major threat to public health with alarmingly rising trends of incidence and severity in recent years, as it appears to correlate closely with emerging patterns of nutrition/diet and behavior/exercise worldwide. The concentration of blood glucose in healthy human subjects is about 90 mg/dl and defines the state of normoglycaemia. Significant and prolonged deviations from this level may give rise to numerous pathologies with serious and extensive clinical impact that is increasingly recognized by current medical practice....

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  • The present publication has been prepared for the Third World Climate Conference (Geneva, September 2009) and the 15th Conference of the Parties to the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP-15, Copenhagen, December 2009). It provides an overview of recently completed and ongoing climate research projects undertaken under the 6th and 7th Research Framework Programmes of the European Community.

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  • In addition to this, health measures typically used in empirical studies may be affected by endogenous reporting behaviour. The outcome of a direct question to an individual’s health status may depend on the labour market status of the respondent. There may be economic motives or it may be the case that individual’s are inclined to give their answer conform to social norms. Reporting health as a major determinant for inactivity is socially more accepted, and eligibility conditions for some Social Security Benefits, notably Disability Insurance ...

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  • Some results of indoor particulate (PM) concentrations measurements in relation to type of stove and fuel from Latin-America are presented in table 2.1. The improved stoves, such as the plancha, produce PM 2.5 or PM 3.5 levels that are often only 20 percent of concentration levels from an open fire, and are even found to be less than 10 percent of that of an open fire in a study in Guatemala by McCracken and Smith (1998). The reduction in PM 2.5 seems to be even larger than reductions in PM 10. However the concentration levels...

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  • While vacationing with my family at Walt Disney World, I decided that I was going to capture some of the marketing genius that I believe began with Walt’s passion and has now grown into one of the world’s most powerful brands. I have long believed that Walt Disney’s genius was not animation or theme park design, but in truly understanding the human heart. Somehow, in the midst of ROI, measurability, counting clicks and studies that can track a person’s eye movements to see what part of an ad captures their attention first -- we have forgotten that marketing and branding is...

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  • In this Chapter we focus on the field-theoretical description of the inflationary phase of the early universe and its post-inflationary dynamics (reheating and particle production) in the context of supergravity, based on the original papers (1–10). To begin with, let us first introduce some basics of inflation.

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  • The greatest limitation of traditional epidemiological indicators is their inability to reflect the “capacity of an individual to perform tasks and activities”13. Self-perceived measures convey more information about the way a certain disease is affecting the individual’s daily routine and the population in general than the measurements collected from a clinical environment5. Clinical indicators are important for the assessment of oral health and treatment needs; nevertheless, their limitations must be considered11.

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  • There is no direct gold standard evidence or specific UK or European consensus guidelines for monitoring the growth of children with moderate to severe renal disease. This document therefore aims to define minimum standards for measuring and monitoring growth in children with CKD, based on local expert opinion, international committee reports, and indirectly supportive peer-reviewed clinical trials and reviews.

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  • Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to measure the effects of the interventions. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS increased in the intervention sites compared to the control sites, with greater improvement in Site B with the additional school-based intervention. The knowledge of contraceptives improved in both intervention and control sites, with the greatest improvement seen in Site A.

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  • A representative random systematic sampling of clusters from 183 elderly people aged 65 and over was selected from the old age groups of Joaçaba, SC. Previous to the commencement of the research, workshops with the participants were conducted in order to discuss the method of performance of the interviews12. A pilot test was done to calibrate the 5 surveyors in relation to the observation of the clinical condition examined, and the (kappa) agreement test was used for these measurements until an adequate value was obtained.

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  • A small minority of respondents indicated that their LRSPs include an explicit definition of the term “ECAI.” For instance, under the Australian prudential standards, an ECAI is defined as “an entity that assigns credit ratings designed to measure the creditworthiness of a counterparty or certain types of debt obligations of a counterparty.” The majority of respondents indicated that their LRSPs reference specific credit rating agencies. All but one of those respondents mentioned Moody’s Investors Service, Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services, and Fitch Ratings.

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  • As a result of its products, services and alliances, LSI’s customers will be able to provide healthier, more educated sound choices about the treatments they offer or dispense. Health care Institutions will find their practices flourishing, as they are able to deliver to their patients alternative choices needed to stay well. They will find they have moved into informed partnerships with their patients where each is responsible for their part and both are empowered and enlightened through information that is now available.

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  • Because of the primary character of biomass ecosystem production and the comprehensive coverage of carbon/biomass accounts, they play a central role in ecosystem capital accounts. Carbon/ biomass is the primary service expected from the ecosystem, under the constraint of sustainable supply of water (for human use and the ecosystem itself) as well as sustainability of all the regulating (water regulation, assimilation of residuals, habitat regulation, pollination) and socio-cultural services which are produced.

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  • We find that dynamically consistent (exponential) impatience cannot explain the magnitude of the decline. The model needs either an implausibly large degree of annual impatience, or a very large intertemporal elasticity of substitution. Intuitively, the problem arises because the exponential discount rate is constant over time:1 even a mild degree of short-run discounting, say a daily discount rate of 1 percent, implies a daily discount factor of 0.99 and thus an annual discount factor of 0.99365 = 0.03.

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