Electrically conductive, ductile, thermally and
mechanically stable composite films of polyaniline and sulfonated poly (arylene ether
sulfone) were introduced. A simple chemical route was followed to prepare composite
films. The electrical conductivity of the films was controlled by changing the weight
percent of conductive filler. Temperature dependent DC conductivity studies showed that
the Mott three dimensional hopping mechanism can be used to explain the conduction
mechanism in composite films.
Renewable natural resources
in the forefront to save the environment and we must do our best to find
applications suitable for them.
The production process is shown by the method of casting, rolling process
including monitoring throughout the process. Innovative testing procedures described in
electrochemistry, ultrasonic pulse velocity, fracture toughness in the macro-micro
mechanical behavior and more. The coordination between the components, laminas and
building parts are checked by different principles....
Due to their good mechanical characteristics in terms of stiffness and strength coupled with mass-saving advantage and other attractive physico-chemical properties, composite materials are successfully used in medicine and nanotechnology fields. To this end, the chapters composing the book have been divided into the following sections: medicine, dental and pharmaceutical applications; nanocomposites for energy efficiency; characterization and fabrication, all of which provide an invaluable overview of this fascinating subject area. ...
Geochemical Investigations in Earth and Space Science: A Tribute to Isaac R. Kaplan is the
written product of a technical session organized for the 2002 Geological Society of America in
recognition of Isaac (Ian) Kaplan’s many contributions to various fields of geochemistry. This
volume is a collection of 29 papers written by former students, post-doctoral researchers, friends
and colleagues from countries all over the world (including Sweden, Japan, Taiwan, New
Zealand, Australia, Israel and the United States)....
Most plastic materials are used because they have desirable mechanical
properties at an economical cost. For this reason, the mechanical properties
may be considered the most important of all the physical and chemical
properties of high polymers for most applications. Thus everyone working
with such materials needs at least an elementary knowledge of their mechanical
behavior and how this behavior can be modified by the numerous
structural factors that can be varied in polymers.
Composites are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more
constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which
remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. Basically, they can be
categorized into two major types, i.e., structural composites with outstanding
mechanical properties and functional composites with various outstanding physical,
chemical or electrochemical properties. They have been widely used in a wide variety
of products, e.g.
The material presented is intended to serve as a basis for a critical study of the fundamentals
of elasticity and several branches of solid mechanics, including advanced
mechanics of materials, theories of plates and shells, composite materials, plasticity
theory, finite element, and other numerical methods as well as nanomechanics and
Biomimetics is the science of emulating nature’s design. In nature, living organisms
synthesize mineralized tissues and this process of biomineralization is under strict biological
control. It involves the interactions of several biological macromolecules among
themselves and with the mineral components. Generally, natures design principles are
based on a “Bott om-Up” strategy. Such processes lead to the formation of hierarchically
structured organic-inorganic composites with mechanical properties optimized for a
Fiber composite technology is based on taking advantage of the high strength and
high stiffness of fibers, which are combined with matrix materials of similar/
dissimilar natures in various ways, creating inevitable interfaces. In fiber composites,
both the fiber and the matrix retain their original physical and chemical identities,
yet together they produce a combination of mechanical properties that cannot be
achieved with either of the constituents acting alone, due to the presence of an
interface between these two constituents.
In common usage, an engine burns or otherwise consumes fuel, and is differentiated from an electric machine (i.e., electric motor) that derives power without changing the composition of matter. A heat engine may also serve as a prime mover, a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but ultimately all such devices derive their power from the engine....
The determination of enzyme AChE continues to be widely used to measure the exposure to
OF and C, however, interpretations of results are highly variable, since there are genetic and
physiological causes as well as associated pathologies, which can decrease the levels of this
enzyme (Varona et al, 2007).
Finally, the last part of the questionnaire aimed to acquire information on the most innovative
examples of financing mechanisms used in the EU countries. The goal for this was to provide
innovative examples of financing mechanisms, which would be used for detailed analysis and
material for a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) of alternative financing mechanisms. In total, 35 cases of
financing mechanisms were reported from 13 countries.
The new monograph ‘‘Mathematical Modeling in Mechanics of Granular Mate-
rials’’ written by Oxana & Vladimir Sadovskii is based on a previous Russian
version published in 2008. The Russian version was significantly revised and
extended. The References were updated with respect to the readers not being
familiar with the Russian language. Instead of eight chapters of the Russian ori-
ginal version there are now ten chapters—a new chapter devoted to continua with
independent rotational degrees of freedom is added....
Different types of mutation can vary in size, from structural variants to single base-pair substitutions, but what they all have in common is that their nature, size and location are often determined either by specific characteristics of the local DNA sequence environment or by higher order features of the genomic architecture. The genomes of higher organisms are now known to contain "pervasive architectural flaws" in that certain DNA sequences are inherently mutation prone by virtue of their base composition, sequence repetitivity and/or epigenetic modification....
Stability is a basic concern in both design and analysis of load-carrying systems and
constitutes a major topic in the field of engineering science and mechanics. Since
structural instability may lead to catastrophic failure of engineering structures,
stability requirements must be satisfied besides requirements related to material
failure. Knowledge on stability is of great importance in the areas of Civil Engineering,
Mechanical Engineering and Aerospace Engineering; and all these disciplines have
their own literature related to the subject....
FFDCA governs the establishment of tolerances, requiring that these levels are sufficient to
ensure a ―reasonable certainty of no harm‖ from pesticide use. FFDCA contains specific
requirements related to children as a result of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)
amendments of 1996.
Regioregular polythiophene-based conductive copolymers with highly crystalline nanostructures are shown to hold considerable promise as
the active layer in volatile organic compound (VOC) chemresistor sensors. While the regioregular polythiophene polymer chain provides a
charge conduction path, its chemical sensing selectivity and sensitivity can be altered either by incorporating a second polymer to form a
block copolymer or by making a random copolymer of polythiophene with different alkyl side chains.
The UI Modernization Act made $7
billion in incentive payments available to states to encourage them to reform their UI programs.
States could receive one-third of their incentive payment by adopting an alternative base
period, which allows workers with shorter, more recent work histories to be eligible for UI
benefits. A total of 41 states received their one-third share, including 21 states that responded
with legislative changes.