In most countries, high medicine prices are a consequence of high prices charged by
manufacturers and/or high add-ons in the supply chain, such as wholesale and retail
margins and government-imposed duties and taxes. Both of these factors, acting either
singly or in combination, can substantially increase the final price of medicines to patients
in both the public and private sectors. In the limited number of low- and middle-income
countries for which data are available, private sector wholesale mark-ups range from 2% to
380%, whereas retail mark-ups range from 10% to 552% (4).
For each medicine, the availability is calculated as the percentage (%) of medicine outlets
in which the medicine was found on the day of data collection. Price results are reported
as median prices in the local currency and also as median price ratios (MPRs). The median
price ratio compares local prices with a set of international reference prices (IRPs) reported
by the US-based Management Sciences for Health (MSH), and is an expression of how much
greater (or lower) the median local medicine price is than the international reference price.
The genus Camelus was probably among the last of the major domestic species to be put
to regular use by man. There is a little direct evidence for an exact time of domestication,
mainly because the camel has changed relatively little as a result of selection and,
whereas it is possible at archaeological sites to observe the changes in other species, this
is not the case for camels. Since the early camel owners were nomadic, they left few
permanent mementoes of their presence. The most likely time of domestication, however,
is about 4000 years BP (before present).
A major shift in the perception of the fundamentals of
marketing is taking place. The shift is so dramatic that it
can, no doubt, be described as a paradigm shift.
Marketing researchers have been passionately convinced
about the paradigmatic nature of marketing mix
management and the Four P model. To challenge
marketing mix management as the basic foundation for
all marketing thinking has been as heretic as it was for
Copernicus to proclaim that the earth moved[23, 24].
Nonetheless, ﬁlm did not start out well meshed with human perceptual and cognitive
systems. Instead, it has evolved slowly over the last 120 years. Early in the 20th century,
frame presentation rates were increased to make the ﬂicker of the successive images less
aversive. At the same time cuts, dissolves, and fades were used to denote shots within the
same scene, across scenes, and across larger ﬁlmsegments (acts), respectively. But later the
use of dissolves and fades as visual cues to ﬁlmstructure was found to be largely unnecessary.
According to EBAN (EBAN, 2010c), there are almost 400 Business Angel networks in Europe, with
around 14.8k investors operating in groups; the corresponding figure for the US is 340, with
around 6.5k investors (operating in groups). The median number of investors in a typical
European business angel network is 79 (EBAN, 2010c).
The number of networks in Europe has
increased rapidly over the past decade, from around less than 100; at the same time the number
of venture capital funds has fallen from around 1,600 to 700; this could be taken as a support for
the hypothesis that...
Local institutional investors in Brazil—pension funds and mutual funds—have been less
active in the equity market. For instance, mutual funds’ asset allocation has been
concentrated in safe and liquid assets such as government bonds and repo transactions.
Pension funds, whose return target is typically set to achieve a certain spread over the rate of
inflation in the context of a high short-term interest rate environment, tend to invest in
inflation-linked bonds rather than equities.
The general picture is that older people of today are healthier than older people
of two decades ago. There have been improvements in most dimensions of health.
People live longer and have fewer disabilities, have less functioning loss, and
report themselves to be in better health. Over time there has been some reduction
in risk from smoking and a lowering of cholesterol and average triglyceride levels.
However, weight increase has been notable during this period.
This paper intends to use psychoanalysis to discover where and how the fascination
of film is reinforced by pre-existing patterns of fascination already at work within the
individual subject and the social formations that have moulded him. It takes as
starting point the way film reflects, reveals and even plays on the straight, socially
established interpretation of sexual difference which controls images, erotic ways of
looking and spectacle.
There is a theoretical concern that women with a short menstrual cycle may ovulate very early
in their cycle, putting them at risk of pregnancy if starting contraception as late as Day 5 or
Day 7 (LNG-IUS). There is no strong evidence to support or refute the risk but some sources of
patient information (e.g. FPA) advise additional contraception for women in this situation if
they have a cycle shorter than 23 days.
Faculty guidance on postnatal sexual and reproductive health includes recommendations on
starting contraceptive methods after childbirth.
Targeting fuel refiners and importers: influencing fuel supply. Measures to influence
fuel supply might involve subsidies and transfers for research, development and deployment, or
regulations and standards for fuel quality. Such standards are most effective when they regulate
performance criteria, rather than fuel composition per se.
Targeting developers and planners: influencing the built environment. Urban form
and design can influence how long average trips taken in urban areas need to be, and what modes
of transport are viable.
The learning environment we present consists of several components (modules) that are well-known Web 2.0 applications such as wikis, weblogs, social bookmarking services and RSS feeds. The section describing the implementation of the environment in a use case at the Darmstadt University of Applied Science focuses on the specific didactic contribution the particular learning modules render towards the entire learning arrangement.
The task force has launched a series of consultations with representatives of the farm
and energy sectors, as well as leading environmental organizations, that aims to reach
final decisions on the type of biofuels, as well as government funding, by year-end,
At present, fuel tax exonerations on the existing biofuels production cost the government
[Euros] 180 million ($221 million) annually, while EU farm subsidies are estimated at
nearly double this amount.
Capital ownership costs for milk production (economic depreciation and interest) are computed
using the capital recovery approach. Capital recovery is an estimate of the cost of replacing the
capital investment for cattle housing, milking facilities, feed storage structures, manure handling
and storage structures, feed handling equipment, tractors, trucks, and purchased dairy herd
replacements used up in the annual production process, plus interest that the remaining capital
could have earned in an alternative use.
In many countries, medicines are provided free to all patients in the public sector. Where
this is the case, price data are not reported. In countries where medicines are only provided
free to some groups of patients (e.g. children, the elderly), data on the price paid by those
who are required to pay for their medicines are collected. In such cases, the price is the full
price paid, even if patients themselves only pay part of this price.
As indicated in Box 1.1, in WHO/HAI methodology medicine prices are reported as median
price ratios or MPRs, which express median local...
To continue the flats and houses price data sets from 1994 to 1999 (latest year data
available), the author sought to rebuild the pre-1995 LGA’s median prices from surburb prices.
The Department of Human Services (Victoria) has documented the
suburbs within each pre-1995 LGA. But reconstructing prices by LGA on the basis of this
document proved not sufficiently accurate for the continuity of the flats and houses price data
sets: comparison of the overlapping time period (1989-1994) showed material differences.
Our identiÖcation relies on the standard assumption in the tax evasion literature that re-
ported income is equal to true income for wage earners.
6 We thus estimate the sensitivity of
credit o§ered to income o§ the wage earners. Since one needs a certain amount of cash mechan-
ically to service debt, the true income-to-credit relationship should be the same for individuals
only di§ering as to self-employment or not.
• The quality of governance. Good governance is critical for sus-
16 A growing body of evidence suggests
that gender equality in rights and resources is associated with
less corruption and better governance. Although the correlation
between gender and corruption may reflect the exclusion of
women from positions of power, and thus from the opportuni-
ty to engage in corrupt practices, evidence from micro-level
studies is consistent with the country-level correlation.
Free cash flow is defined as cash flow from operating activities less capital expenditures. In addition, for
the quarters ended June 30, 2002 and December 31, 2003, free cash flow also included change in long-term
deferred revenue and Overture receivable settled through acquisition, respectively. Change in long-term
deferred revenue represented cash payments received in advance of revenue recognized. Overture
receivable settled through acquisition represented a Yahoo! accounts receivable balance owed from
Overture that was settled as part of the acquisition.
The reduction in fixed ICT spending is gradually exploited by the new and exist-
ing firms, and the speed of adoption of the new possibility remains an unknown
variable for us. It will depend on a number of macroeconomic and microeconomic
factors and on policymaking as well. Moreover, it will be characterized by impor-
tant strategic complementarities: adoption for a single firm is crucial if many firms
are expected to adopt it, but it is not if they are not, which means that multiple
equilibria could emerge (with slow or rapid adoption and with limited or deep